【已废除】移民局不发 RFE 直接拒绝申请的新政解读

【2021/06/10 更新】移民局昨日更新政策手册,废除了川普政府 2018 年 7 月的备忘录,重新启用 2013 年的政策:如果申请中有错误或遗漏、但可以通过补充证据来解决,那么 USCIS 需要给申请人提供补充证据的机会、发 RFE,而不能直接拒绝。通知在这里

Requests for Evidence and Notices of Intent to Deny

USCIS is returning to the adjudicative principles of a June 2013 memo (PDF) that instructed agency officers to issue an RFE or NOID when additional evidence could potentially demonstrate eligibility for an immigration benefit. As part of the updated RFE and NOID policy (PDF, 319.1 KB), USCIS is rescinding a July 2018 memo that permitted agency officers to deny certain immigration benefit requests instead of first issuing an RFE or NOID.

This updated policy will ensure that benefit requestors are given an opportunity to correct innocent mistakes and unintentional omissions. In general, a USCIS officer will issue an RFE or NOID when the officer determines additional information or explanation may potentially establish eligibility for an immigration benefit.

### 以下是原文 ###

读者李哲的 F2A 申请收到补件要求(request for evidence 、 RFE),他担心自己不能准确理解 USCIS 的要求,问「补充的材料依然有问题的话会被直接 denied 吗?还是会再给我发 RFE 呢?」

Trump 上台之后,除了打击 undocumented immigrants 外,合法移民的政策也收紧。

2018 年 7 月 13 日,移民局发布备忘录,放宽了此前对 USCIS 官员的限制,允许他们在处理证据不足的申请时,可以直接拒绝,而无需先发 RFE 或 NOID(Notice of Intent to Deny 、拒绝意向),原文在这里。这项新规自 2018 年 9 月 11 日生效,现在已经实施。

之前要求给申请人补件的机会

在此之前,根据移民局 2013 年 6 月 3 日的备忘录,若申请人证据不足,移民局官员需要先发 RFE/NOID,给申请人补充证据的机会;只有在申请有重大缺陷、根本「不可能」通过补充证据来达到要求时,才可以直接拒绝。参见新备忘录对此前政策的解释:

RFEs should be issued 「when the facts and the law warrant,」 it also stated that an adjudicator should issue an RFE unless there was 「no possibility」 that the deficiency could be cured by submission of additional evidence. The effect of the 「no possibility」 policy was that only statutory denials (such as a denial where a nonexistent benefit is requested) would be issued without an RFE or a NOID.

比如说,你是绿卡、为自己的已婚子女申请绿卡,这个移民类别不存在,根本不可能通过补件来解决,那么移民官无需发 RFE/NOID,可以直接拒绝。如果你是公民、申请父母,你的申请合理合法,只是缺了经济担保的材料,这种情况下移民官就不能直接拒绝,而是要先发 RFE/NOID,给你一个补救的机会。

新政之后移民官有权直接拒绝

根据新的备忘录,如果申请缺乏证据,即使完全可以通过补件来达到要求,移民官也有权直接拒绝,而无需先发 REF/NOID,备忘录举例来说:

Cases where the regulations, the statute, or form instructions require the submission of an official document or other form or evidence establishing eligibility at the time of filing and there is no submission. For example, family-based or employment-based categories where an Affidavit of Support (Form I-864), if required, was not submitted with the Application to Register Permanent Residence or Adjust Status (Form I-485).

家庭和工作移民类别,假如按要求需要填写经济担保 I-864,但是申请人没有提交,按以前的政策移民官必须先发 REF/NOID,而现在则可以直接拒绝。不过,新政并未禁止移民官在这种情形下发 REF/NOID,只是给了他们更大的裁量权。

为什么会有这种变化?

根据 USCIS 的新闻稿,移民局局长 Lee Francis Cissna 表示:

For too long, our immigration system has been bogged down with frivolous or meritless claims that slow down processing for everyone, including legitimate petitioners.[…] Doing so will discourage frivolous filings and skeletal applications used to game the system, ensure our resources are not wasted, and ultimately improve our agency’s ability to efficiently and fairly adjudicate requests for immigration benefits[…].

因为以前有很多 frivolous/meritless 的申请,浪费了移民局的时间,拖慢了处理速度,新政是为了减少这种无理取闹的申请,以及「game the system」钻空子的行为。哪些钻空子的行为呢?比如说「先上车、后补票」,先随意提交一个申请占位置、确立优先日期,然后合法停留在美国慢慢等 RFE/NOID 的行为。

当然,这些冠冕堂皇的理由都是说辞。真正的原因是 Trump 政府的反移民倾向。

还可以二次 RFE 吗?

理论上来说仍然有。新的备忘录里也讨论了这一点:

In some cases, particularly where the response to an RFE opens up new lines of inquiry, a follow-up RFE might be warranted.

但是,这仅限于移民局官员收到 RFE 之后有新的疑问、则可以再次发另一个 RFE 。若是申请人未正确回复 RFE,这是申请人自身的过错(申请移民福利,举证的责任在申请人,不在联邦政府),移民局官员可直接拒绝。备忘录对此也有清楚解释:

In response to an RFE or a NOID, applicants, petitioners, or requestors must submit all of the requested materials together at one time, along with the original RFE or NOID. If only some of the requested evidence is submitted, USCIS will consider this to be a request for a decision on the record.

若申请人回复 RFE 时未提供充分的证据,移民局会视为「申请人无法提供更多的证据、要求按现有证据处理」,而不会再发一个 RFE 。回到本文开头读者的问题:

  • 问:补充的材料依然有问题的话会被直接 denied 吗?还是会再给我发 RFE 呢?
  • 答:直接拒绝的可能性很大,再发一个 RFE 的可能性极小。

新政的影响

材料不足的申请今后可能直接被拒;除非你十分有把握,否则建议你不要自己操作,而是请有经验的移民律师。

Rule of thumb: If you are asking questions around, it’s probably in your best interest to hire an experienced immigration attorney, rather than do it yourself.

最新绿卡排期参见这里

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