College Campus

美国大学的学杂费有多贵?前 100 名大学对比

大家都知道在美国上大学很贵。

根据全国教育统计中心的数据:

  • 2020/21 学年,美国公立大学平均每年的学杂费(不含住宿等生活费用)为 $9,375 美元;按定值美元 (constant dollar) 计算,1999/2000 学年是 $5,205 美元,相当于去除通胀的情况下,20 年间增长了 80% 。
  • 相比之下,私立营利性大学反而最厚道 —— 2020/21 学年平均学杂费 $15,442,相比 1999/2000 学年只增长了 15% 。
  • 私立非营利大学则从每年 $23,521 增加到 $35,852,增幅达 52% 。

至于为何私立「非营利」大学比私立的「营利」大学要贵这么多,我简单搜了一下,没看到特别令人信服的解释。如果您了解其中详情,欢迎赐教!

私立大学,不管你来自哪里,学杂费一样。公立大学有很大一部分经费来自州政府,因此对本州的居民要便宜很多,这一点在上面的图表中并没有体现出来。美国没有「户口」这么个东西,大家自由迁移,要成为「居民」并没有特别苛刻的条件,比如 211/985 学历、缴纳 xx 年社保等等。以我所在的 Virginia 为例,你只要搬到这里住满一年,就算是我们的居民了。你甚至都不用买房,租房也行 —— 不管是本州的公立大学,还是中小学的好学区,都不要求「在这里买房才算居民」。

College Board 统计的数据显示,2022 年,私立学校平均一年的总花费(包括学杂费和住宿等生活费)是 $57,570;公立大学,如果你是外州学生,一年总花费平均 $45,240 美元;但如果你是州内学生,则只需要 $27,940,整整省下了 $17,300 美元!公立学校对外国学生的收费,则各自的政策不同 —— 有些是跟美国外州学生一个价,有些则要更贵一些。

当然,什么数据都怕「平均」—— 有个粗俗的笑话说:「你爸和你妈还平均一个蛋蛋呢!」下面的数据来自 College Tuition Compare,是全美排名前 100 的大学的学杂费。因为有并列排名,所以其实有 104 所学校。

「薪水/学费比例」是指毕业 10 年后的平均年薪、除以本科生每年的学费。如果是公立大学,则有「州内本科/研究生」的学费,私立大学这两栏为 n/a —— 因为私立大学不管州内州外(甚至国外)都是一个价。

美国前排名前 100 高校学费等一览表

排名学校州外本科学费州内本科学费州外研究生州内研究生10年后薪水薪水/学费比例录取率学生数量毕业率
29University of FloridaUT Utah$28,659$6,381$30,130$12,737$65,7002.2923%55,21191%
97University of South FloridaUT Utah$17,324$6,410$21,126$10,428$48,5002.8044%49,60075%
55Florida State UniversityUT Utah$21,683$6,517$26,707$11,553$53,9002.4925%44,16183%
29University of North Carolina at Chapel HillFL Florida$37,550$8,989$30,819$12,527$68,8001.8317%31,70590%
72North Carolina State University at RaleighFL Florida$30,869$9,128$30,906$11,700$59,5001.9347%36,70084%
51Purdue University-Main CampusMA Massachusetts$28,794$9,992$28,794$9,992$62,2002.1653%51,52883%
83University of IowaGA Georgia$32,316$10,353$31,511$12,564$62,0001.9286%30,01574%
83Binghamton UniversityCA California$28,203$10,363$25,570$13,780$68,1002.4142%18,31284%
77Stony Brook UniversityCA California$28,480$10,560$25,733$13,943$62,6002.2049%25,71078%
89University at BuffaloCA California$28,702$10,782$26,178$14,388$62,1002.1668%32,09974%
38University of Wisconsin-MadisonNY New York$39,427$10,796$25,577$12,251$68,0001.7249%48,95689%
49University of GeorgiaCO Colorado$30,220$11,180$26,576$10,268$59,1001.9643%40,60788%
55University of Maryland-College ParkIN Indiana$39,469$11,233$36,598$17,448$70,8001.7945%40,79288%
72Indiana University-BloomingtonMA Massachusetts$39,120$11,447$33,367$11,468$57,8001.4882%47,00581%
38The University of Texas at AustinPA Pennsylvania$41,070$11,698$22,952$12,036$73,9001.8031%52,38488%
44Georgia Institute of Technology-Main CampusCO Colorado$32,876$11,764$30,646$15,570$85,9002.6117%45,29692%
97Auburn UniversityNJ New Jersey$32,960$12,176$32,942$12,170$56,3001.7144%31,76481%
55University of Washington-Seattle CampusDC District of Columbia$40,740$12,242$31,530$18,057$69,6001.7148%52,31984%
49Ohio State University-Main CampusCT Connecticut$36,742$12,485$39,598$12,997$53,6001.4653%60,54088%
97University of Colorado BoulderIL Illinois$38,962$12,590$36,570$16,804$59,7001.5381%39,58574%
67Texas A & M University-College StationPA Pennsylvania$40,139$12,605$23,395$10,687$67,8001.6963%74,01483%
20University of California-Los AngelesNC North Carolina$43,473$13,401$28,424$13,322$73,2001.689%46,43092%
97University of California-MercedNC North Carolina$43,863$13,791$28,591$13,48989%9,10372%
89University of California-RiversideNC North Carolina$43,946$13,874$28,851$13,749$55,3001.2669%26,80976%
34University of California-IrvineNC North Carolina$44,011$13,939$28,747$13,645$65,8001.5021%35,93784%
83University of California-Santa CruzNC North Carolina$44,312$14,240$29,315$14,213$53,8001.2147%19,47878%
20University of California-BerkeleyNC North Carolina$44,467$14,395$29,578$14,476$79,0001.7811%45,30793%
32University of California-Santa BarbaraNC North Carolina$44,689$14,617$28,974$13,872$62,4001.4026%26,42085%
62Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityVA Virginia$34,920$14,666$32,433$17,083$67,1001.9257%38,17087%
38University of California-DavisNC North Carolina$44,930$14,858$29,008$13,906$68,1001.5237%39,67987%
34University of California-San DiegoNC North Carolina$44,978$14,906$29,005$13,903$69,6001.5524%42,00689%
89University of DelawareIA Iowa$37,930$15,410$18,664$18,664$64,0001.6974%24,03982%
97University of Illinois ChicagoTX Texas$30,841$15,472$28,422$17,257$61,3001.9979%33,74762%
77Clemson UniversityMD Maryland$39,502$15,558$23,912$12,204$58,9001.4943%28,46685%
62University of Minnesota-Twin CitiesNH New Hampshire$35,099$15,859$30,425$20,315$61,2001.7475%54,95584%
55Rutgers University-New BrunswickMN Minnesota$33,963$16,263$34,182$21,078$68,1002.0166%50,63784%
77Michigan State UniversityWI Wisconsin$42,607$16,617$39,876$20,382$63,2001.4888%50,02382%
67University of Massachusetts-AmherstWA Washington$38,171$16,952$33,750$16,625$57,7001.5164%32,22984%
41University of Illinois Urbana-ChampaignTX Texas$38,362$17,782$32,416$18,131$70,9001.8545%56,91685%
25University of Michigan-Ann ArborWI Wisconsin$57,273$17,786$52,456$26,226$79,0001.3818%51,22594%
97New Jersey Institute of TechnologyMN Minnesota$34,972$18,512$35,718$25,224$70,3002.0166%12,33274%
67University of ConnecticutAL Alabama$42,102$19,434$43,174$21,262$66,0001.5755%27,00383%
77Pennsylvania State University-Main CampusDE Delaware$38,651$19,835$42,151$25,015$57,2001.4855%50,02872%
89Colorado School of MinesIL Illinois$42,120$20,040$42,138$20,196$95,6002.2758%7,40383%
62University of Pittsburgh-Pittsburgh CampusDE Delaware$37,320$21,080$43,504$26,142$61,2001.6449%33,76784%
25University of Virginia-Main CampusVA Virginia$57,374$21,425$34,832$21,742$79,4001.3819%26,08294%
41William & MaryVA Virginia$47,196$23,970$35,136$16,776$74,5001.5833%9,65491%
89Brigham Young UniversitySC South Carolina$6,304n/a$7,932n/a$71,50011.3467%34,46477%
2Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyWA Washington$57,986n/a$61,075n/a$153,6002.654%11,85896%
3Harvard UniversityWA Washington$57,261n/a$53,760n/a$139,1002.433%30,63197%
3Stanford UniversityNC North Carolina$58,416n/a$57,210n/a$141,3002.424%18,28396%
7University of PennsylvaniaDE Delaware$63,452n/a$44,162n/a$131,6002.077%28,20196%
1Princeton UniversityMN Minnesota$57,410n/a$60,410n/a$116,3002.036%8,84298%
22Georgetown UniversityMI Michigan$62,051n/a$57,049n/a$125,2002.0212%20,98495%
3Yale UniversityAL Alabama$62,250n/a$46,900n/a$124,4002.005%14,77697%
10Duke UniversityFL Florida$62,688n/a$61,522n/a$114,5001.836%18,02396%
12Dartmouth CollegeOH Ohio$62,430n/a$61,056n/a$110,2001.776%6,74494%
18Columbia University in the City of New YorkCA California$65,508n/a$54,627n/a$115,6001.764%34,78297%
89Howard UniversityMI Michigan$31,050n/a$36,022n/a$54,5001.7653%12,88664%
9California Institute of TechnologyNC North Carolina$60,864n/a$60,657n/a$106,3001.753%2,40193%
22Carnegie Mellon UniversityDE Delaware$60,854n/a$48,557n/a$103,0001.6911%16,00293%
15Rice UniversityPA Pennsylvania$54,960n/a$52,342n/a$91,6001.679%8,67292%
6University of ChicagoTX Texas$62,940n/a$66,492n/a$103,0001.645%18,33996%
18University of Notre DameMA Massachusetts$60,301n/a$60,116n/a$98,4001.6313%13,10596%
67Yeshiva UniversityCA California$48,800n/a$35,150n/a$78,8001.6163%6,05680%
17Cornell UniversityCA California$63,200n/a$30,019n/a$101,2001.607%25,89894%
32Tufts UniversityWA Washington$65,222n/a$55,280n/a$103,3001.5810%13,43194%
51Lehigh UniversityDE Delaware$59,930n/a$27,200n/a$94,1001.5737%7,39487%
83Stevens Institute of TechnologyMN Minnesota$58,624n/a$40,940n/a$91,9001.5746%9,31487%
83Marquette UniversityNY New York$46,670n/a$22,410n/a$70,7001.5187%11,16781%
67Worcester Polytechnic InstituteWA Washington$56,896n/a$29,040n/a$84,6001.4957%7,30887%
55Santa Clara UniversityNC North Carolina$57,534n/a$24,798n/a$85,3001.4852%9,17891%
7Johns Hopkins UniversityIN Indiana$60,480n/a$62,962n/a$89,3001.487%31,27595%
10Northwestern UniversityTX Texas$63,468n/a$53,024n/a$93,4001.477%23,16195%
22Emory UniversityCO Colorado$57,948n/a$46,700n/a$84,4001.4611%14,84190%
15Washington University in St LouisMO Missouri$60,590n/a$60,590n/a$87,9001.4512%17,01293%
44Case Western Reserve UniversityCT Connecticut$61,584n/a$50,878n/a$89,3001.4527%12,20184%
36Boston CollegeWA Washington$64,176n/a$34,028n/a$92,5001.4417%15,28791%
51Rensselaer Polytechnic InstituteCA California$60,074n/a$61,673n/a$86,0001.4365%6,96884%
13Vanderbilt UniversityTN Tennessee$60,348n/a$53,722n/a$86,2001.437%13,71093%
51Villanova UniversityDE Delaware$61,618n/a$21,307n/a$87,6001.4223%10,38391%
89Elon UniversityFL Florida$42,241n/a$19,494n/a$58,7001.3974%7,12383%
44Tulane University of LouisianaLA Louisiana$62,844n/a$63,244n/a$86,3001.3711%14,02786%
25University of Southern CaliforniaNC North Carolina$64,726n/a$64,666n/a$88,8001.3712%48,94592%
13Brown UniversityRI Rhode Island$65,046n/a$63,866n/a$89,1001.375%11,18996%
62George Washington UniversityMI Michigan$60,946n/a$33,984n/a$82,4001.3549%25,93984%
25New York UniversityCA California$58,168n/a$39,592n/a$78,6001.3512%59,14487%
97University of San DiegoNC North Carolina$54,554n/a$28,878n/a$71,1001.3053%8,81580%
77Loyola Marymount UniversityNC North Carolina$55,441n/a$20,748n/a$71,6001.2941%10,16579%
29Wake Forest UniversityFL Florida$62,128n/a$39,328n/a$79,6001.2821%8,96390%
55University of MiamiUT Utah$57,194n/a$42,816n/a$72,9001.2719%19,40284%
83Gonzaga UniversityDC District of Columbia$50,735n/a$19,811n/a$63,8001.2670%7,25385%
72Southern Methodist UniversityPA Pennsylvania$61,980n/a$36,864n/a$77,9001.2652%12,05382%
72American UniversityMI Michigan$53,889n/a$39,126n/a$67,7001.2641%13,88579%
44Northeastern UniversityWA Washington$60,192n/a$27,009n/a$74,2001.237%30,01391%
55Pepperdine UniversityNC North Carolina$63,142n/a$39,720n/a$77,6001.2349%10,03083%
41Boston UniversityWA Washington$62,360n/a$61,924n/a$75,9001.2214%36,71489%
36University of RochesterCA California$61,678n/a$42,668n/a$74,3001.2039%12,19786%
89Texas Christian UniversityPA Pennsylvania$53,980n/a$33,708n/a$62,6001.1656%12,27383%
72Fordham UniversityCA California$58,082n/a$23,950n/a$67,0001.1554%16,55683%
62Syracuse UniversityCA California$60,135n/a$44,790n/a$69,2001.1552%22,69882%
77Baylor UniversityPA Pennsylvania$51,738n/a$38,772n/a$58,4001.1346%20,70982%
44Brandeis UniversityWA Washington$62,322n/a$55,224n/a$69,0001.1139%5,58188%
97Clark UniversityWA Washington$52,352n/a$47,730n/a$54,7001.0450%3,77079%

学杂费最贵的是哥伦比亚大学,本科每年 $65,508 、研究生每年 $54,627;毕业 10 年后平均薪资 $115,600,按本科学费计算的话,薪水/学费比例大约是 1.76 。

每年学杂费超过 $64,000 的高校还有塔夫茨大学、布朗大学、南加州大学、以及波士顿学院。

哥伦比亚大学

学杂费最便宜的是犹他州的杨百翰大学,每年仅 $6,304 。它是一所私立大学,学费却吊打一众公立大学 —— 因为它是教会学校,每年从摩门教获得约 10 亿美元的资金,这个便宜的学费是给摩门教徒,如果你不是摩门教徒的话,学杂费会翻约一倍。

摩门教徒一百八十多年前被迫害,从东海岸一直逃难到落基山,在当时还属于墨西哥的犹他定居。如今,犹他州有 200 多万摩门教徒,占全州人口的 55% 、占全美摩门教徒的 1/3 。

杨百翰大学

除了杨百翰大学这个特例外,其他本科学杂费在 $20,000 以下的还有南佛罗里达大学、佛罗里达州立大学、宾汉姆顿大学、石溪大学、佛罗里达大学、布法罗大学、普渡大学,全部都是公立大学。

如果是州内学生、上公立大学的话,学杂费最便宜的是爱荷华大学,本科每年仅 $10,353;其他 $11,000 以内的还有宾汉姆顿大学、石溪大学、布法罗大学、威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校。

除了杨百翰大学这个特例外,毕业 10 年后薪水与本科学费之比 —— 大致可以认为投入产出比 —— 最高的是南佛罗里达大学,虽然毕业后薪水不高,10 年后平均才 $48,500,但人家学费低呀!州外本科学费仅 $17,324,薪水与学费之比高达 2.8 。

麻省理工学院

其他「投入产出比」很高的学校还有麻省理工学院、佐治亚理工学院等。麻省理工虽然学费很贵,本科生 $57,986 一年,但毕业 10 年平均薪资高达 $153,600,薪水/学费比例达 2.65,还是很值的!

Derek Yang

生于湖南,先后在北京和广东学习与工作。2013年移居美国。EB-1 职业移民。非移民律师、非移民中介。Twitter @mrderekyang

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