健康医药

美国医院:孩子做噩梦怎么办、要看医生吗?

导读:3-6岁的孩子有10%-50%在睡觉时会做足以让父母担忧的恶梦。

最近 Ethan 有时做恶梦,我们想着要不要去看儿医。在网上简单搜了下,看到 Cleveland Clinic 官网有篇介绍文章,编译如下。Cleveland Clinic 是全美最好的医院系统之一,有3万多雇员(Cleveland 最大的雇主),年营收近百亿美元。他们的医疗资料可信度是比较高的。原文参见这里

3-6岁的孩子有10%-50%在睡觉时会做足以让父母担忧的恶梦。轻松愉快的睡前准备有助于缓解。

什么是噩梦?

所谓 “nightmare” 是指那些吓人、往往会把孩子吓醒的梦。年纪小的孩子可能无法区分恶梦与真实,包括在醒来之后。孩子可能会因此发脾气、害怕、不肯睡觉。

噩梦的成因

噩梦形成的准确原因现在还不知道:它可能会来自于孩子白天看到、或听到的事情,也可能毫无来由。创伤性的事故、或精神疾病,可能引起噩梦。一些改变大脑神经递质、或导致深睡的药物,也可能引发噩梦。

噩梦通常于 3-6 岁开始出现,但也有早至1-2岁的 “toddler”。3-6岁的孩子,有10%-50%会做足以让父母开始担忧的噩梦。噩梦的类型经常与孩子的发育阶段有关:比如说,1-2岁的 toddler 可能会梦到与父母分离;小一点的孩子可能会梦到走丢、死亡、危险;而大一点的孩子可能会因为看恐怖电影而做噩梦。

噩梦通常在后半夜发生;若孩子被吓醒后,往往能记得内容、甚至栩栩如生;孩子通常不会困惑。这几个特点有助于区分「噩梦」 “nightmare” 与「夜惊」 “night terror”,后者常在上半夜发生、往往回忆不起来内容、孩子可能会意识朦胧困惑。

如何缓解孩子的噩梦?

  • 保证充足睡眠。充足睡眠、固定的入睡习惯,可能有助于减少噩梦的频率和强度。
  • 让睡前准备轻松、快乐、好玩。入睡前的 30-60 分钟,不要看恐怖电影、电视,不要给孩子讲吓人的故事、放吓人的音乐,以及做其他可能让孩子不安的事情。
  • 在白天与孩子聊聊噩梦。如果噩梦经常发生,跟孩子聊聊,看这些噩梦是否有固定的主题。如果有固定主题,可能有什么事情困扰着孩子 -- 搞明白是什么、想办法与孩子一起减少这些困扰。
  • 抚慰。这可能是最好的方法。孩子做噩梦惊醒之后,陪孩子呆一会。可以允许他抱自己喜欢的玩具或毯子(security blanket)睡觉。如果他想开灯睡觉的话,把灯调到最低的亮度,或买小夜灯。可以把门打开。告诉孩子、让他相信家里很安全。
Sensor Led Night Light, Color Changing Plug-in LED Mushroom Dream Bed Lamp
  • Hottest Film as a creative source. Mushrooms, leaves, grass and flower: like real ones.
  • The 3 cute mushrooms will light up with 3 colors: blue, yellow and white. Warm, soft and romantic lights glitter in darkness; leave the lights on for you and the ones you cared.
  • Enjoy the art of flower arrangement: 5 leaves and a flower can be inserted to the grass as you like. LED technology applied.
有折扣
GE LED Night Light, 2 Pack, Plug-In, Dusk-to-Dawn Sensor, Home Décor, Ideal for Bedroom, Nursery, Bathroom, Hallway, Soft, 30966, White | Automatic, 2
  • Light when you need It: With light sensing technology, this night light automatically turns ON at dusk and OFF at dawn
  • Compact Night Light: The modern night light design plugs into any standard unused indoor outlet while leaving the 2nd outlet free for use
  • Home Decor : Compliment your home with this night light’s stylish, glossy white finish
LED Night Light, with Dusk to Dawn Sensor, Diffused Light, Energy Efficient, Plug in Night Light for Bedroom, Bathroom, Kitchen, Hallway, Stairs, Kids Room, Warm White, 2 Pack
  • 🌙Ideal Low-Light Lighting: Bright enough to see where you're going in the dark without turning on other lights, but not so bright as to blind you.
  • 🌙Automatic Illumination: Built-in smart light sensor, automatically turns on when ambient lighting becomes insufficient.
  • 🌙Compact Size: White color blends into outlets while the compact size keeps the second outlet free.
ANSMANN Starlight Ladybug Ladybird Nightlight Projects Actual Star Constellations Relax Effect Multicolor LED Sleeping Aid for Babies Kids
  • Fascinating nightlight in the form of a ladybird. Imparts a feeling of security and creates a calming atmosphere – enchants both young and old!
  • The starlight projects a wonderful sky of stars onto the wall and ceiling inviting you to dream. Helps children of all ages to fall asleep and also helps your child to orient themselves in the darkened room. Also ideal as a nightlight and when nursing.
  • 4 worlds of colour can be selected via the touch sensor (blue, red, green or automatically changing colours) Ideal for home and for travelling. Deep sleep is promoted by the light switching off automatically after 30 minutes.
有折扣
LED Night Light for Kids ,Soft Silicone Puppy LED Lamp with Sensitive Touch Control, Baby Nursery Lamp with Warm/Cool White Dual Modes-USB Rechargeable,Brightness Adjustable, Timing Function
  • Eye-caring LED and BPA-free silicone material: energy-efficient and eye-caring LED creates a uniform non-flickering light that doesn't Hurt the eyes; Color is adjustable between cool white and warm white. BPA-free washable silicone makes it safe and soft to touch.
  • Easy touch-control and Timing Set: nursery light, designed for children to learn and play with - touch the nose to adjust the brightness brighter or dimmer. 30/60 Minute Sleep Timer - Short press the button on the bottom to Switch the timer mode.
  • Up to 15 Hours and Rechargeable: Built-in 1200mAh lithium battery supports portable usage up to 15 hours on brightest light mode after a full charge.
Echo Glow - Multicolor smart lamp for kids, a Certified for Humans Device – Requires compatible Alexa device
  • A smart lamp for kids - Pair with any compatible Alexa device to control color and brightness with your voice.
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Hatch Baby Rest Sound Machine, Night Light and Time-to-Rise
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  • 和孩子一起尝试克服噩梦恐惧的方法。比如阅读如何克服噩梦的书籍;把噩梦画出来、然后撕掉;有些父母甚至发现在孩子床前挂印第安人挂件(native American charms)有效!

帮助孩子克服噩梦的儿童书籍

The Berenstain Bears and the Bad Dream
  • Great product!
  • Berenstain, Stan (Author)
  • English (Publication Language)
Mommy, Daddy, I Had a Bad Dream!
  • Martha Heineman Pieper (Author)
  • English (Publication Language)
  • 32 Pages - 04/02/2012 (Publication Date) - Smart Love Press, LLC (Publisher)
有折扣
Little Rabbit and the Night Mare
  • Hardcover Book
  • Klise, Kate (Author)
  • English (Publication Language)
The Dream Jar
  • Used Book in Good Condition
  • Hardcover Book
  • Pryor, Bonnie (Author)
Sweet Dreams, Curious George
  • Harcourt Brace and Company
  • Rey, H. A. (Author)
  • English (Publication Language)

是否有必要给儿医打电话?

如果出现以下情形,可考虑给儿医打电话:

  • 孩子的噩梦加重、或更频繁了。
  • 孩子对噩梦的恐惧影响到了他白天的行为。
  • 孩子反复做噩梦、非常压抑;或涉及心理健康问题。这些情形建议寻求专业人士帮助。

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