Workers, Mural Bauzite Mining, by Julius Woeltz, in Saline County Courthouse in Benton, Arkansas

美国各州就业人数及工会保护的比例

数据来自劳工统计局(U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistic)的表格,2020 年 「Union affiliation of employed wage and salary workers by state」 。「工会保护」指的是(1)本人是工会成员,或(2)本人虽未加入工会,但其职位受工会保护。「就业人数」指的是全职和兼职的员工,不含自雇人士。

下图中,颜色越深的州,表示受工会保护的职位比例越高(工会势力越强大):

  • 工会保护占比最高的是夏威夷(25.7%)、纽约(23.6%)、阿拉斯加(19.5%)。
  • 工会保护占比最低的是南卡(3.8%)、北卡(3.9%)、田纳西(5.1%)。
  • 华人较多的加州为 17.6% 、华盛顿州 18.6% 、德州 6%;华府 VA 5.4% 、 DC 9.5% 、 MD 14.1% 。

2020 年美国各州受工会保护的职位比例
(制图:美国攻略)

[map] { id: “US-AK”, value: 19.5 }, { id: “US-AL”, value: 8.7 }, { id: “US-AR”, value: 5.9 }, { id: “US-AZ”, value: 7.1 }, { id: “US-CA”, value: 17.6 }, { id: “US-CO”, value: 8.2 }, { id: “US-CT”, value: 18.4 }, { id: “US-DC”, value: 9.5 }, { id: “US-DE”, value: 10.3 }, { id: “US-FL”, value: 7.9 }, { id: “US-GA”, value: 6.5 }, { id: “US-HI”, value: 25.7 }, { id: “US-IA”, value: 9.1 }, { id: “US-ID”, value: 6.4 }, { id: “US-IL”, value: 15.2 }, { id: “US-IN”, value: 9.5 }, { id: “US-KS”, value: 11.2 }, { id: “US-KY”, value: 9.4 }, { id: “US-LA”, value: 6.7 }, { id: “US-MA”, value: 12.8 }, { id: “US-MD”, value: 14.1 }, { id: “US-ME”, value: 16.7 }, { id: “US-MI”, value: 16.6 }, { id: “US-MN”, value: 17.0 }, { id: “US-MO”, value: 10.1 }, { id: “US-MS”, value: 8.3 }, { id: “US-MT”, value: 13.0 }, { id: “US-NC”, value: 3.9 }, { id: “US-ND”, value: 7.4 }, { id: “US-NE”, value: 10.5 }, { id: “US-NH”, value: 11.1 }, { id: “US-NJ”, value: 17.8 }, { id: “US-NM”, value: 8.6 }, { id: “US-NV”, value: 15.4 }, { id: “US-NY”, value: 23.6 }, { id: “US-OH”, value: 14.2 }, { id: “US-OK”, value: 7.6 }, { id: “US-OR”, value: 17.3 }, { id: “US-PA”, value: 14.6 }, { id: “US-RI”, value: 19.1 }, { id: “US-SC”, value: 3.8 }, { id: “US-SD”, value: 5.5 }, { id: “US-TN”, value: 5.1 }, { id: “US-TX”, value: 6.0 }, { id: “US-UT”, value: 5.4 }, { id: “US-VA”, value: 5.4 }, { id: “US-VT”, value: 13.8 }, { id: “US-WA”, value: 18.6 }, { id: “US-WI”, value: 10.2 }, { id: “US-WV”, value: 11.3 }, { id: “US-WY”, value: 9.3 } [/map]

整体来说,偏民主党的州,受工会保护的职位比例较大,偏共和党的州,受工会保护的职位比例较小(可对比 2020 年大选党派地图)。但也有例外,最明显的是 Alaska,2020 大选川普赢了 10 个点,但受工会保护的职位比例高达 19.5%,仅次于夏威夷和纽约。

2020 年美国各州就业人数对比
(单位为千人)

[map-b] { id: “US-AK”, value: 280 }, { id: “US-AL”, value: 1896 }, { id: “US-AR”, value: 1158 }, { id: “US-AZ”, value: 2909 }, { id: “US-CA”, value: 15069 }, { id: “US-CO”, value: 2470 }, { id: “US-CT”, value: 1533 }, { id: “US-DC”, value: 343 }, { id: “US-DE”, value: 424 }, { id: “US-FL”, value: 8155 }, { id: “US-GA”, value: 4173 }, { id: “US-HI”, value: 508 }, { id: “US-IA”, value: 1401 }, { id: “US-ID”, value: 732 }, { id: “US-IL”, value: 5178 }, { id: “US-IN”, value: 2838 }, { id: “US-KS”, value: 1282 }, { id: “US-KY”, value: 1694 }, { id: “US-LA”, value: 1682 }, { id: “US-MA”, value: 2982 }, { id: “US-MD”, value: 2690 }, { id: “US-ME”, value: 559 }, { id: “US-MI”, value: 3974 }, { id: “US-MN”, value: 2515 }, { id: “US-MO”, value: 2525 }, { id: “US-MS”, value: 1034 }, { id: “US-MT”, value: 419 }, { id: “US-NC”, value: 4128 }, { id: “US-ND”, value: 338 }, { id: “US-NE”, value: 890 }, { id: “US-NH”, value: 629 }, { id: “US-NJ”, value: 3719 }, { id: “US-NM”, value: 743 }, { id: “US-NV”, value: 1208 }, { id: “US-NY”, value: 7552 }, { id: “US-OH”, value: 4815 }, { id: “US-OK”, value: 1501 }, { id: “US-OR”, value: 1694 }, { id: “US-PA”, value: 5307 }, { id: “US-RI”, value: 455 }, { id: “US-SC”, value: 2036 }, { id: “US-SD”, value: 385 }, { id: “US-TN”, value: 2678 }, { id: “US-TX”, value: 11607 }, { id: “US-UT”, value: 1403 }, { id: “US-VA”, value: 3703 }, { id: “US-VT”, value: 265 }, { id: “US-WA”, value: 3201 }, { id: “US-WI”, value: 2592 }, { id: “US-WV”, value: 666 }, { id: “US-WY”, value: 240 } [/map-b]

2020 年美国各州工会成员人数及比例
(制表:美国攻略)

就业人数工会成员占比工会保护占比
Alabama1,8961518.01648.7
Alaska2804917.75519.5
Arizona2,9091555.32077.1
Arkansas1,158554.7695.9
California15,0692,44116.22,65517.6
Colorado2,4701827.42028.2
Connecticut1,53326217.128218.4
Delaware424419.74410.3
District of Columbia343308.6339.5
Florida8,1555246.46447.9
Georgia4,1731944.62716.5
Hawaii50812023.713025.7
Idaho732415.6476.4
Illinois5,17873914.378815.2
Indiana2,8382358.32709.5
Iowa1,401936.61289.1
Kansas1,2821148.914411.2
Kentucky1,6941277.51609.4
Louisiana1,682995.91136.7
Maine5598214.79316.7
Maryland2,69035113.138014.1
Massachusetts2,98235712.038312.8
Michigan3,97460415.266116.6
Minnesota2,51539815.842717.0
Mississippi1,034747.1868.3
Missouri2,5252389.425410.1
Montana4195012.05413.0
Nebraska890859.69410.5
Nevada1,20816113.418615.4
New Hampshire629629.87011.1
New Jersey3,71960016.166017.8
New Mexico743537.1648.6
New York7,5521,66122.01,78423.6
North Carolina4,1281293.11613.9
North Dakota338216.2257.4
Ohio4,81563713.268614.2
Oklahoma1,501906.01147.6
Oregon1,69427516.229317.3
Pennsylvania5,30771713.577514.6
Rhode Island4558117.88719.1
South Carolina2,036592.9773.8
South Dakota385174.3215.5
Tennessee2,6781174.41375.1
Texas11,6075634.96936.0
Utah1,403513.7755.4
Vermont2653111.83613.8
Virginia3,7031644.42015.4
Washington3,20155717.459618.6
West Virginia6667110.77511.3
Wisconsin2,5922278.726410.2
Wyoming240187.6229.3
Derek Yang

生于湖南,先后在北京和广东学习与工作。2013年移居美国。EB-1 职业移民。非移民律师、非移民中介。Twitter @mrderekyang

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