NVC 会自动计算 CSPA 年纪吗,还是需要申请人提出?

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读者 Mei 问:「我是 F4 的随从子女,我姑妈申请我爸爸过去。我们的优先日期是 2005-03-09,表B已经排到,表A离我们的优先日期只有五个月加一周,请问我们大概什么时候可以收到任何通知?地址信之类的?我是93年11月的,pending 时间长达4年9个月,按照 CSPA 的计算方式我没有超龄,但是美国移民局那边会自动计算吗?还是说我需要自己申请 CSPA?」

CSPA 指的是儿童身份保护法案(Child Status Protection Act)。因为移民处理时间很长,很多申请人的子女在提交申请的时候未满21岁,等到移民局、NVC 处理的时候已经超龄,不再符合当初申请时的条件。国会意识到这一点,于是立法规定在特定情形下可以「冻结」申请人子女的年纪、或用「CSPA 调整年纪」的方法来减少超龄的案件。

所谓「CSPA 调整年纪」,即在签证有名额的时候(表A),用申请人子女当时的生理年纪减去 I-130/140 的处理时长。这个问题网上很多文章介绍,以后若有人问、并且我有时间,我可以考虑再写一篇文章。

亲属移民的子女通常人在境外,适用领馆处理程序。等表A有排期(或预计很快会有排期;最新排期参见这里)的时候,美国国家签证中心(NVC)会检查案件并通知申请人缴费,在这个过程中他们可能不会、当然也可能会计算 CSPA 年纪。

实际上,若 NVC 在「预计很快会有排期」的时候提前发缴费通知,虽然可以缩短主申请人等待的时间,但此时尚未有排期、他们根本无法准确计算子女的 CSPA 年纪。若排期已定、申请人子女的 CSPA 年纪没有超龄、但没有收到缴费通知,可以联系 NVC 申明,并要求他们补寄缴费通知。

在2016年11月美国移民律师协会(AILA)与 NVC 的一次会议中,AILA 代表提出顾虑,因为他们发现申请人子女年满21岁之后 NVC 经常不发缴费通知,虽然律师可以联系 NVC 要求发缴费通知,但一来一回又耽搁了宝贵的时间,他们询问 NVC 在这种情形下是否可以给申请人和子女同时寄缴费通知,NVC 的答复是:我们考虑考虑。全文如下

It appears that NVC generally does not issue fee bills to dependent children who have turned 21, as they are not able to determine whether the child can benefit under CSPA when the priority date is not current. Often, these children will not age out until 1-2 years in the future; however, if the attorney waits until the priority date is current to request the child’s fee bill, valuable time is lost from the time the fee bill is requested to the time it is actually issued and paid. As such, would NVC consider issuing fee bills for such dependent children when the fee bills are issued for the rest of the family?

Allowing the child’s immigrant visa (IV) fee to be paid before the CSPA age is determined by the consular officer at the IV interview would enable the dependent child to “seek to acquire” and potentially lock in their CSPA age, prevent delays for the rest of the family’s IV interviews, ensure that the child is able to immigrate with the rest of the family, and prevent NVC from receiving an influx of fee bill requests when priority dates advance.

AILA understands that there may be some cases where the fee bill is paid but the child ages out before the priority date becomes current but notes that most in this situation would opt to pay the fee bill to lock in the CSPA age despite this risk.

AILA has raised this with NVC in the past but has not received a final answer from the NVC or Visa Office; as such, please confirm whether DOS has made a decision on whether to issue fee bills to such dependents and allow them to potentially lock in their CSPA age when their parent is current under the Filing Date chart.

RESPONSE: The Visa Office and NVC are currently examining CSPA guidelines, including the question of whether or not NVC would be able to issue an IV fee bill in these circumstances.

回到 Mei 的问题:NVC 可能计算、也可能不计算;若他们不计算、发的缴费通知里没有你,需要立刻联系 NVC 要求补发。若不清楚如何做,请个移民律师。

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Derek Yang 生于湘西农村,毕业于北京大学,曾在广东省中山电视台、北京盛唐传扬公关公司、迪思传媒集团工作,2012 年底移居美国首都华盛顿特区,在 Arlington 生子、Falls Church 买房。了解更多,请参见:戴睿可美国日记美国攻略(ZAQ.US)、眼界计划

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