健康医药

怎么选择医用口罩和 N95 口罩?

导读:太长不看版:日常防护买 surgical mask,贴身接触病人买N95 Respirator。

近年来几次大规模传染病,如 SARS、MERS、H7N9,以及最近的武汉新型冠状病毒,都是以呼吸道和粘膜为主的传染病,预防方法除了勤洗手注意消毒外,出入公共场所也必须佩戴口罩,以杜绝飞沫传染。市面上口罩种类繁多,到底哪种能防病毒、哪种不能,以及啥是 N95?有必要囤 N95 吗?

太长不看版:日常防护买 surgical mask,贴身接触病人买 N95 Respirator。

这篇文章发布之后,里面提到的很多口罩已经售罄,可参见我们最新整理的《美国现在还能买到的医用口罩》。

哪种口罩能防病毒

市面上能买到的口罩主要有:

  • 保暖的棉布口罩
  • 明星防狗仔口罩
  • 活性炭口罩
  • 一次性医用口罩
  • 医用外科口罩
  • N95 口罩
  • N95 医用防护口罩

前面三种口罩都不能防病毒,能防病毒的只有:一次性医用口罩、医用外科口罩、N95口罩和N95医用防护口罩

钟南山院士的建议是:并不一定非要戴 N95,因为这些病毒实际上不是单独的存在,它常常存在在飞沫中,一般的口罩、外科口罩等等这些还是能够阻挡大部分带着飞沫的病毒进入呼吸道。如果是去一般露天公共场所、不与病人接触,可以选择佩戴医用外科口罩,不必过度防护,但如果会接触疑似呼吸道感染的病人,则要佩戴 N95 型口罩。

什么是医用外科口罩

医用口罩有三层结构,最外层阻挡液体,中间层阻挡病菌,内层吸收潮气,鼻部有铝条固定。只有一层的不能称为医用口罩,也没有防护作用。不管是蓝色、绿色还是粉红色医用口罩,深色的一面是外层,浅色或白色的一面是里层,不要戴反了。

在美国,医用口罩分为三级:ASTM Level 1, ASTM Level 2, ASTM Level 3。级别越高,防护性能越好。Level 1 和 level 2 口罩通常叫 procedure mask;Level 3 口罩可在手术室内使用,也叫 surgical mask。日常在公众场所的防护,Level 1 口罩其实已经足够,它对细菌的过滤效率已达95%。 接触病毒的机会越大,就选择级别更高的防护。

一张图读懂医用口罩防护级别 | 图片来源:CROSSTEXLEARNING.COM

ASTM 是指 American Society of Testing and Materials(美国材料与试验学会),它对医疗口罩制定了以下标准:

  • BFE(细菌过滤效率):BFE 用来衡量医用口罩在受到含细菌的气雾剂攻击时滤除细菌的能力。 ASTM 使用含有金黃葡萄球菌的3.0微米液滴进行测试。金黃葡萄球菌的平均大小0.6-0.8微米。​​医用/外科口罩要求最低95%的过滤率(level 1),中度(level 2)和高度防护口罩(level 3)必须具有大于98%的细菌过滤率。
  • PFE(微粒过滤效率):PFE 用来衡量医用口罩对亚微米颗粒的过滤效果,以模拟病毒过滤效果。过滤百分比越高,口罩过滤效果越好。一般可有使用0.1到5.0微米的颗粒进行测试,但 ASTM F2100-11 标准规定使用0.1微米的颗粒。Level 1 医用口罩 PFE 最低95%,Level 2 和 Level 3最低98%。
  • Fluid Resistance 流体阻力:流体阻力反映了医用口罩隔绝液体的能力。 ASTM 规定在80、120或160 mm Hg的压力下使用合成血液进行测试,以符合低、中或高流体阻力的要求。这些压力与血压相关,80 mm Hg = 静脉压力(1级),120 mm Hg = 动脉压力(2级),160 mm Hg = 动脉压力(3级)。
  • Delta P(压差):Delta P 测量医用口罩的空气流动阻力,是对透气性的客观度量。 Delta P以mm H2O / cm2的单位测量,该值越低,则口罩感觉越透气。 ASTM 标准要求,对于中度和高度防护口罩,Delta P 小于5.0,而低度医用口罩的 Delta P 必须小于4.0。
  • 明火承受能力:医院中会使用到氧气和其他产生火焰的医疗工具,ASTM F2100-11 标准包括阻燃性测试。测试要求所有医用口罩都必须能承受暴露于燃烧火焰中(指定距离内)三秒钟。
医用外科口罩佩戴方法 | 图片来源:新华报业

要点:深色一面朝外、浅色一面朝内;有鼻夹一侧朝上、褶皱朝下;调整鼻夹使其贴合面部;4小时更换一次。

Richmond Dental & Medical 400502 Level 1 Earloop Face Mask, Anti-Fluid, Blue
1 个好评
Richmond Dental & Medical 400502 Level 1 Earloop Face Mask, Anti-Fluid, Blue
  • Face mask and pleats cover nose, mouth and chin for full protection
  • Latex-free material including ear loops, hypoallergenic
  • Adaptable nose clip and ear loops for a comfortable and secure fit
Medicom Safe+Mask Premier Earloop Face Mask ASTM Level 1 Blue Disposable Latex Free 50/Box
  • ASTM Level 1 / Latex Free // Strap Type: Ear Loops
  • Protective nonwoven inner layer
  • BFE = 95% and fluid resistance at 80 mm Hg

什么是 N95 口罩

根据 NIOSH 空气过滤评级标准,“N”、“R”、“P”字母表示对油性颗粒的抵挡能力,“N”即不适用于油性颗粒,“R”有一定抵挡能力,“P”则是为对油性颗粒有强抵挡能力。其后的数字为有能力过滤微粒的百分比,95即可阻挡95%的微粒。因此,N95口罩就是能够阻挡95%直径0.3微米及以上的非油性微粒(包括PM2.5)的口罩。同理,还有N99、N100,就是阻挡率达99%和100%。

N95口罩比医用口罩的防护性能更高。因为医用口罩并非全方位覆盖口鼻,口罩边缘还是有较大空隙的。N95 口罩则是全方位覆盖口鼻不留空隙,对于暴露在病菌环境下的人有更好保护作用。但是 N95 口罩会造成佩戴者呼吸不顺,无法长期佩戴,所以才建议只有严重雾霾或是医护人员这些暴露于病菌环境中的人才佩戴。如果你戴着 N95 还呼吸自如,只能说你戴得不对。

N95口罩佩戴方法 | 图片来源:新华报业

要点:凸面朝外、有鼻夹一侧朝。先套下面的系带、再套上面的系带。捏压鼻夹使其贴合脸型。吹气、吸气均不漏气。

N95 口罩的标识

我们最熟悉的就是 3M 品牌的口罩。但不是所有 3M 口罩都是 N95 口罩,也并非只有 3M 一个品牌生产 N95 口罩。所有 NIOSH-Approved N95口罩品牌和型号在 CDC 这个网页。大家购买时搜索一下该产品有没有在 CDC 的名单上。

正规厂家的 N95 口罩,每一个口罩上面都应该有如下标识:

  • NIOSH 认可的制造商名字或注册商标。
  • 大写 NIOSH 字母或 Logo。
  • NIOSH 测试和认证批准号,例如 TC-84A-XXXX。
  • NIOSH 过滤器系列和过滤器效率等级,例如 N95,N99,N100,R95,P95,P99,P100。
  • 口罩型号,如 9010、1860。
N95口罩标识 | 图片来源:CDC
我家的 3M N95-8511 口罩,上面有 NIOSH 字样及批号

3M 品牌的 9132 和 1860 口罩的区别

简单来说,两者都是 N95 级别口罩,都可以一定程度阻挡病毒和细菌;其中1860是医疗级别 N95,也能阻挡飞溅液体、水滴和喷雾。3M 9132 在美国不常见,貌似9132是中国版型号,同样型号在美国是9010。3M 品牌的18xx系列是医疗级别N95,鉴于现在的形势,医疗级别的已经不好买,可以考虑其他工业级别的防尘型N95。

3M 8200HB3-A Sanding and Fiberglass Respirator, 20-Pack
29 个好评
3M 8200HB3-A Sanding and Fiberglass Respirator, 20-Pack
  • Use for non-harmful dusts from sanding, grinding, sawing and insulating particles
  • Proprietary filter technology for easier breathing
  • Adjustable nose clip reduces fogging, helps ensure a better seal and snug fit
3M 8511 Respirator, N95, Cool Flow Valve (10-Pack)
3,110 个好评
3M 8511 Respirator, N95, Cool Flow Valve (10-Pack)
  • Niosh Approved N95 for at least 95 percent filtration efficiency against certain non oil based particles and aerosols
  • 3M Cool Flow Valve Helps Reduce Heat Build Up Inside the Respirator
  • Breathe 30percentage Easier Compared to 3M 8200, Breathe Easier Is Defined As Initial Pressure Drop

N95 口罩能长期佩戴吗?

看情况。一般来说,口罩在长期使用后,防护效果会降低。但在传染病达爆发时(所幸美国目前还好),N95 也像外科口罩一样每4小时一换,很快就会出现医疗耗材枯竭。CDC 现行指南是建议采取多种方法节省耗材 [来源]

  • 优先通过其他手段减少需要使用N95口罩的人数,把口罩留给真正需要的人,比如高感染风险的人。
  • 使用其他级别的可替代的口罩、面罩。
  • 在可接受的情况下延长或重复使用N95。比如多个患者感染同一病原体并将患者一起放在病房时,可延长使用时间。
  • 当N95口罩出现变形、损坏、无法完整贴合面部、被体液血液污染、浸湿时,一定要及时更换新口罩。

有必要囤 N95 吗?

如果你近距离接触病人,可适当买一些N95。日常出外没有必要囤 N95。普通医用口罩已经能有效减少病菌传播,而且价格合适,可于家中常备。不管是这次的新型冠状病毒,还是冬季常发的流感,四时感冒,医用口罩都能派上用场,实在是居家旅行,馈赠亲友,必备佳品!

美国预防及治疗流感的常识 美国的流感季通常从十月开始持续到第二年五月,其中十二月至二月是流感高峰季节。根据美国疾病预防控制中心(CDC)在发布的最新报告来看,美国目前正处于流感... Cassie Zeng 2020-02-07 0 评论 阅读全文

美国现在还能买到的医用口罩

由于众所周知的原因,大家都很关心哪里能买到口罩。

现在很多医用口罩以及 N95 口罩在 Amazon 等电商都是有价无货 “Currently Unavailable”,但耐心找找还是有的(就是最近价格飙升很多……),比如下面这些,在我们更新这篇文章的时候仍然显示有货、可以下单。其中大部分要等到3月中甚至下旬才能发货,挑选的时候注意看右侧是否有类似 “Arrives: March 6 - 13” 的字样。

Amazon

N95 口罩

建议选择美国国家职业安全卫生研究所(National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health;NIOSH)认证的 N95 口罩,即 NIOSH Approved。参见:《怎么选择医用口罩和 N95 口罩?》。

SAS Safety N95 NIOSH Approved Particulate Respirator Surgical Face Mask, Pack of 10 Individually Hygienically Sealed Masks
  • N95 NIOSH Certified
  • 10 Hygienically Packed Masks, Individually Packed
  • High Quality Build and Feel
Oleumfield Tech 10 Pcs N95 Disposable Face Mask
  • N95 (10 Pcs) Disposable Dust Respirator Face Mask.
  • Contour Fit Design
  • Adjustable Nosepiece
Blackpoolfa N95 Respirator FFP1 PM2.5 Face Masks Medical Mask Germ Protection 3 Layer Surgical Dust Filter Earloop Mouth Cover,12 PCS
  • 【About delivery】: The order will be sent immediately: we have a large amount of stock to deliver and offer fast and normal transport channels to meet your needs. The delivery time is approx. 4-8 days.
  • 【Filterability】:Respirators with filters are the best breathing masks that can filter more than 99% of viruses. Smoke dust smells like bacteria, vehicle exhaust and air pollution.
  • 【Comfortable to wear】: With drooping ears, adjustable headband, soft and breathable, comfortable to wear, suitable for every face and nose.
N95,FFP2 masks (20)
  • These are N95 / NIOSH approved masks. They can be used for general large particle stimuli. Protects against toxic dust, fumes, mists, gases and vapors, including asbestos, silicon dioxide or cotton dust.
  • We will use the free fast delivery service for you.
  • Clear vision: The low-key design allows you to see the route and what you are doing. Easy to wear glasses or goggles.
N95, FFP1 Masks (60)
  • These are N95 / NIOSH approved masks. They can be used for general large particle stimuli. Protects against toxic dust, fumes, mists, gases and vapors, including asbestos, silicon dioxide or cotton dust.
  • This product provides free fast delivery service
  • Clear vision: The low-key design allows you to see the route and what you are doing. Easy to wear glasses or goggles.
N95,FFP2 masks (60)
  • These are N95 / NIOSH approved masks. They can be used for general large particle stimuli. Protects against toxic dust, fumes, mists, gases and vapors, including asbestos, silicon dioxide or cotton dust.
  • We will use the free fast delivery service for you.
  • Clear vision: The low-key design allows you to see the route and what you are doing. Easy to wear glasses or goggles.
Angusshop N95 mask, with Layers Valve FFP1 Filter Protection Dust Pollution Mask Unisex Outdoor (60 PCS)
  • The transportation efficiency is very high, and the order is sent immediately: we have a large amount of stock to supply, and provide fast and ordinary transportation channels to meet your needs. Choose a fast delivery logistics channel and you will receive your mask within three business days as soon as possible.
  • Protections Used By Healthcare Professionals to help prevent catching a virus or the flu, FILTERS THE AIR YOU BREATH IN-our N95 masks ensure you are protected from air pollution. This respirator with activated filter is the best breathing mask that can be used all year round in any weather, protecting you from fog, smoke, dust, odors, car exhaust, air pollution and keeping you away from many diseases, Stay healthy and safe.
  • High technology filters almost 98% of airborne particles dust, germs, seasonal allergies, smoke, car exhausted gas, PM 2.5 pollution ash.
N95 mask Particulate Respirator, KN95, Smoke, Dust, Grinding, Sanding, Sawing, Sweeping 200pcs
  • NIOSH APPROVED: For at least 95% filtration efficiency against certain non-oil based particles like dust.
  • CUSTOM FIT: Adjustable nose clip helps provide a secure seal. Cushioning foam for added comfort on the nose.
  • EASY BREATHING: Incorporates proprietary technology with advanced electrostatically charged microfiber filter media, designed for easy breathing.

N95 口罩最近几周价格狂飙(普通医用口罩也涨了很多)。N95 适合职业暴露的人群,如每天接触病患的医务工作者。对于普通人来说,非 N95 的普通医用口罩(surgical mask)就行了。

500只装医疗口罩

Particulate Respirator Mask, 500 Pack Disposable Face Mask Antiviral Medical Surgical Dental Earloop Polypropylene Masks for Personal Healthr, Construction, Home, Traffic Dust, Allergy, Mowing
  • Made of soft and healthy non-woven fibers for a comfortable and breathable feeling.
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400只装医疗口罩

Particulate Respirator Mask, 400 Pack Disposable Face Mask Antiviral Medical Surgical Dental Earloop Polypropylene Masks for Personal Healthr, Construction, Home, Traffic Dust, Allergy, Mowing
  • Made of soft and healthy non-woven fibers for a comfortable and breathable feeling.
  • A mask with a disposable 3-layer filter helps filter residues, debris, dust, pollen and smoke from everyday life.
  • polyacrylic

300只装医疗口罩

Particulate Respirator Mask, 300 Pack Disposable Face Mask Antiviral Medical Surgical Dental Earloop Polypropylene Masks for Personal Healthr, Construction, Home, Traffic Dust, Allergy, Mowing
  • Made of soft and healthy non-woven fibers for a comfortable and breathable feeling.
  • A mask with a disposable 3-layer filter helps filter residues, debris, dust, pollen and smoke from everyday life.
  • polyacrylic

200只装医疗口罩

Particulate Respirator Mask, 200 Pack Disposable Face Mask Antiviral Medical Surgical Dental Earloop Polypropylene Masks for Personal Healthr, Construction, Home, Traffic Dust, Allergy, Mowing
  • Made of soft and healthy non-woven fibers for a comfortable and breathable feeling.
  • A mask with a disposable 3-layer filter helps filter residues, debris, dust, pollen and smoke from everyday life.
  • polyacrylic

100只装医疗口罩

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Particulate Respirator Mask, 100 Pack Disposable Face Mask Antiviral Medical Surgical Dental Earloop Polypropylene Masks for Personal Healthr, Construction, Home, Traffic Dust, Allergy, Mowing
  • Made of soft and healthy non-woven fibers for a comfortable and breathable feeling.
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  • polyacrylic
100Pcs Disposable 3-Layer Masks, Anti Dust Breathable Disposable Earloop Mouth Face Mask, Comfortable Surgical mask
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50只装医疗口罩

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Disposable masks,Medical Face 3-Layer Mask with Elastic Earloop for Virus, Bacteria, Germ, Dust, Pollen, Particle Protection(Pack of 50pcs)
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  • 3.Ideal for student, beauty salon people, cleaner, cook, farmer and who needs mask to prevent dust, fumes. and it is also great for woodworking and house cleaning.
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50 PCS Medical Earloop Disposable Surgical Face Mask - Best Use for Hospital Procedure Masks - High Quality 3 Ply Cotton Gives You Protection from Virus - Sanitary Mask for Adults and Kids
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50 Pcs Disposable Face Masks,Disposable Surgical Mask Dust Breathable Earloop Antiviral Face Mask, Comfortable Medical Sanitary Surgical Mask Thick 3-Layer Masks (blue)
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  • EFFECTIVE: Offers dust, pollution, allergy, respiratory protection and bacterial filtration.

20只装医疗口罩

20 Pcs Disposable Face Mask Medical Surgical Mask Dust Breathable Earloop Antiviral Face Mask, Comfortable Sanitary Surgical Mask Thick 3-Layer Masks
  • DISPOSABLE ANTIVIRALl MOUTH MASK FOR KIDS AND ADULTS- Stay healthy and safe when at work or out and about by wearing one of our disposable face mask. Keeping you away from pollutants and allergens to help you breathe easier and stay germ free as much as possible. Also great for pet allergens.not N95 MASK.
  • ONE SIZE FITS MOST - These surgical face masks are suitable for adults and children making them ideal to keep in your home in case of an emergency.boxed packing.safe and clean.
  • SPECIAL DESIGN - Soft elastic earloop,extra-soft ear loops eliminate pressure to the ears. Inner layer is made of soft facial tissue, no dye, gentle to the skin.Thick 3-layer masks.

10只装医疗口罩

Disposable 3-Ply Face Mask Antiviral Medical Surgical Dental Earloop Polypropylene Masks for Personal Health - Pack of 10 (Blue)
  • Earloop, pleated, 3-ply polypropylene dental grade face masks
  • Electrostatic polypropylene micro-fiber material
  • Adjustable nose seal works for adults and kids alike
10 PCS Disposable Medical Mask Anti Dust Breathable Antiviral Earloop Face Mask, Comfortable Sanitary Surgical Mask Thick 3-Layer
  • ONE SIZE FITS MOST- These surgical face masks packaged and sealed to ensure the highest standards, suitable for adults and kids making them ideal to keep in your home in case of an emergency.
  • SPECIAL DESIGN - Soft elastic earloop,extra-soft ear loops. Inner layer is made of soft facial tissue, no dye, gentle to the skin.Thick 3-layer masks.
  • DISPOSABLE ANTIVIRALl MOUTH MASK FOR KIDS AND ADULTS - Stay healthy and safe when at work or out and while wearing our disposable face mask. Keeping you away from pollutants and allergens to help you breathe easier and stay germ free.Also perfect for pet allergens.not N95 MASK

继续阅读:《怎么选择医用口罩和 N95 口罩?》。

美国如何选择家庭消毒液

冬季本来就是流感季,加上 2019-nCov 新型冠状病毒疫情,小伙伴们要考虑对家居做消毒啦。

继续阅读:《美国如何选择家庭消毒液》。

增强免疫力、预防流感和肺炎,试试这个保健品

不是我说的,是美国国家卫生研究院说的。

继续阅读:《增强免疫力、预防流感和肺炎,试试这个保健品》。

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3 条评论

  1. 请问这篇文章可以转载吗

  2. 計畫從美國寄一些口罩給在香港的家人,可是聽說 “口罩” 無法寄回香港,是嗎?

    1. @查理 没听说呀。

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