美国当地主:冬季必备的铲雪工具

在美国当地主,除了南部的几个州,住其他州的应该都参与过一项冬季全民健身活动:铲雪。公共道路的积雪由政府清理,住宅和商店前的积雪则需由业主负责。各人自扫门前雪,还真不是贬义词。

留意当地法规

我这儿要求雪后 36 小时内必须清理住宅门口人行道、车道的积雪,以及把消防栓挖出来(如果被雪埋着了),别的城市可能有更严格的规定。搜索 snow removal regulation + city 即可找到当地的相关法规啦。不及时铲掉积雪和撒盐融冰,轻则被热心邻居举报,重则害路人滑倒受伤。铲出来的雪不可以堆在人行道或马路上,可以堆在车道旁边不影响出入的位置。

下雪前撒盐

在下雪和下冻雨前事先撒盐十分重要。有的人认为反正我得铲雪,何必提前撒盐呢?融雪盐的作用比你想象中大哦。事先撒盐比路面结冰后撒盐,融冰的效果好得多。没及时撒盐害路人滑倒,那么你的责任就大了。如果你事先撒了盐,然后路人不小心滑倒,至少你还能 defend yourself 。

融雪盐是由氯化钠、氯化钙、氯化镁和氯化钾中的一种或几种混合组成。其原理是盐水凝固点低,难以结冰。单由氯化钠做成的融雪盐也叫 rock salt,价格最便宜,但它不宜用在靠近植物的地方。氯化钙成分的融雪盐效果最好,其盐水比单纯氯化钠盐水凝固点更低,对植物和动物伤害也没那么大,价格当然更贵些。

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融雪盐使用小贴士

  • 事先撒盐。冻雨过后可补撒一遍。
  • 宜少不宜多。融雪盐并不是用越多越好,按照包装上的说明份量使用即可。过多的融雪盐会腐蚀地面。
  • 要戴手套。不仅是因为天气冷,更重要是防止化合物伤害皮肤。推荐用撒种机撒盐,撒得又快又平均还不伤手。撒种机春天还可以用来播草种和施肥,一物多用。
  • 家有宠物可以选择对宠物友好的融雪盐,不要让狗子喝外面的雪水,狗子回家时先给它洗 jio jio 。
  • 晴天积雪和冰都化完了,残留的融雪盐要扫起来丢垃圾桶。
  • 没用完的融雪盐储存在干燥的地方。

播种机长这样,有手持式或推拉式的。

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铲雪工具

首先当然是大铲子。铲雪除了铲的动作,还可以推,就是把雪推到旁边去,比铲起来省力。雪铲都是平头的(不像普通的铲子是尖头圆头的),就是为了容易推。

雪铲的尺寸完全看个人的身高体型。铲子头越宽,一次能铲/推的雪就越多,但是相对的也要花更多力气。铲子柄则长短不等,高个子选长柄的,短柄老是要弯腰;个子不高的人就不要选长柄的雪铲。

雪铲的设计

雪铲最重要的两个部分是铲子头和铲子柄。

铲子头

铲子头有两种设计:比较平板的和有点深度像大勺子的。

  • 比较平板的铲子头适合 「切割」 有一定厚度的雪,但要把雪铲起来就不好着力了。就好像我们吃雪糕,平勺子容易挖,但不好舀。
  • 有点深度的铲子头适合把雪铲起来,也可以把雪推走,在积雪厚度比铲子头矮的时候很好用。

比较下面两个铲子头,就可以看出一个比较平,一个有弧度。

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铲子柄

比起选铲子头,铲子柄的选择更为重要,直接决定了我们铲完雪第二天能不能上班。

雪铲的材质

通常是塑料、木头、金属组合。有些人会准备金属和塑料雪铲各一把,应付不同情况。

铲子头材质

铲子柄材质

  • 木头手柄。轻巧、坚固、耐用、环保。保养得好可以用很多年。木头会热胀冷缩,所以每年使用前请确保螺丝都紧固。建议一年涂一次亚麻籽油做保养。
  • 玻璃纤维手柄。可能是所有手柄材质里最耐用的,不受天气变化影响,不会生锈,不会弯曲,很难折断,其代价是很重,累死狗。
  • 塑料手柄。如果你力气太小,那么只好选择塑料手柄了。用完存放在室内,不要晒到太阳,也能用挺久的。
  • 金属手柄。通常是由铝等轻质金属制成,或者混合其他金属的合金。用力不当会容易弯曲,不及时晾干也会生锈。

比如下面的几把雪铲,木质手柄、铲子头 18 寸,重 2.85 磅;玻璃纤维手柄、铲子头同样 18 寸,重 3 磅;铝合金手柄、铲子头 10 寸,小一点,但重量才 1.4 磅。

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挖车必备 Scraper

上回下冻雨,我车子停了半小时不到,前后左右的镜子就全结冰了,幸好车里有一把 Ice Scraper 和 Brush 。真的真的车里放一把吧,良心建议。 Scraper 的选择就比较简单了,长度能够得着大半个车窗就行了。

其他的铲雪配件包括保暖的衣服、手套、雪靴、帽子、墨镜等。注意劳逸结合,多用腿力少用腰力。顺便买一把儿童雪铲给娃,也是打发他们的好办法。

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美国应对暴风雪的准备工作和物资

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