B1/B2 签证单次停留 + 延期是否最长不超过1年?

多位读者询问 B1/B2 签证单次在美国停留的时间多久、是否有不得超过1年的限制。

移民法对此的规定如下,8 CFR § 214.2 (b)

(1) General. Any B-1 visitor for business or B-2 visitor for pleasure may be admitted for not more than one year and may be granted extensions of temporary stay in increments of not more than six months each, except that alien members of a religious denomination coming temporarily and solely to do missionary work in behalf of a religious denomination may be granted extensions of not more than one year each, provided that such work does not involve the selling of articles or the solicitation or acceptance of donations. Those B-1 and B-2 visitors admitted pursuant to the waiver provided at § 212.1(e) of this chapter may be admitted to and stay on Guam for period not to exceed fifteen days and are not eligible for extensions of stay.

(2) Minimum six month admissions. Any B-2 visitor who is found otherwise admissible and is issued a Form I-94 (see § 1.4), will be admitted for a minimum period of six months, regardless of whether less time is requested, provided, that any required passport is valid as specified in section 212(a)(26) of the Act. Exceptions to the minimum six month admission may be made only in individual cases upon the specific approval of the district director for good cause.

  • 除少量例外情形外,B-1/B-2 准许入境不超过1年、单次延期不超过6个月。
  • B-2 因私旅游,不管你计划呆多久(比如说你本来只打算在美国玩1个月),只要你的护照有足够的有效期,准许入境时会给最少6个月的期限。「不给6个月」属于例外情形,需要有充分的理由(比如往来过于频繁)、需要地区主管(district director)的批准。

根据我的理解,「may be admitted for not more than one year」 指的是「入境时 CBP 官员可以给不超过1年的停留期限」,并不是指「单次入境,包括 CBP 官员给的首次停留期限、和之后 USCIS 批准的延期,最多不超过1年」。我查找过、没有找到过「单次入境(含首次 I-94 和延期)不得超过1年」的权威说法,应该只是读者的误解。

国务院《外事手册》「B 签证和墨西哥跨境卡」(TOURISTS AND BUSINESS VISITORS AND MEXICAN BORDER CROSSING CARDS – B VISAS AND BCCS)部分,有如下说明,9 FAM 402.2-2(D) (U) Temporary Period of Stay,可佐证我的理解:

a. (U) Although 「temporary」 is not specifically defined by either statute or regulation, it generally signifies a limited period of stay.  The fact that the period of stay in a given case may exceed six months or a year is not in itself controlling, provided that you are satisfied that the intended stay actually has a time limitation and is not indefinite in nature.

b. (U) The period of time projected for the visit must be consistent with the stated purpose of the trip.  The applicant must establish with reasonable certainty that departure from the United States will take place upon completion of the temporary visit. 

c.  (U) The applicant must have specific and realistic plans for the entire period of the contemplated visit.

d. (U) In evaluating these cases, you should not focus on the absolute length of the stay, but on whether the stay has some finite limit.  For example, the temporariness requirement would be met in a case where the cohabitating partner will accompany, and depart with, the “principal” alien on a two-year work assignment or a four-year degree program.

  • 《外事手册》说了:「临时」 停留期限可能会超过6个月甚至1年。
  • 在审理这些案件的时候,你(审理的官员)不应该关注停留时间的绝对长度(究竟有几个月),而应该关注该停留是否有明确限制(不会无限期呆下去)。《外事手册》举例说,如果有外国人因工作需要派驻美国两年、或来美国攻读一个4年的学位,与其一同居住的伴侣(配偶)计划陪伴他、并在项目结束时一起离开,(虽然可能会停留2年甚至4年)当视为满足「临时签证」的要求。

关于 B1/B2 「单次停留最多不超过1年」,我只找到一处官方的说法,并且有明显的瑕疵,我认为只是 USCIS 不严谨而已。是的,虽然移民局是移民事项的主管机构,我仍然要说,应该是他们写得不严谨。在以前的另一篇文章,我还说过国会的报告应该搞错了,参见《绿卡「假」排期和大幅倒退的问题》。

此处官方说法在移民局官网,说的是 B-1 短期商务签证,链接在这里。没有关于 B-2 因私旅游和探亲签证的说法。

 Initial Period of Stay Extension of Stay
1 to 6 months; 6 months is the maximumUp to 6 months; maximum total amount of time permitted in B-1 status on any one trip is generally 1 year.

这个表格说:B-1 签证入境时给的首次停留期限最多6个月,延期最多6个月。单次停留(on any one trip),「通常」(generally)不超过1年。也就是说,包括延期在内,单次停留最多1年。当然他也说了是「generally」,不排除有例外情形。但是,就在这个表格的下面,又说:

At the port of entry, an immigration official must authorize your admission to the United States, and, if you are eligible for admission, you may be admitted initially for the period necessary to carry out your business activities, up to a maximum period of 1 year. If you who wish to stay beyond the time indicated on the Form I-94 without departing from the United States, you must file Form I-539, Application to Extend/Change Nonimmigrant Status, and submit any required supporting documents to USCIS. For more information, see the Extend my Stay page.

如果你符合允许入境的情形,首次停留期限即可给到最多1年。与上面的表格冲突。我对此的理解是:

  • B-1 商务签证,入境的首次停留期限「通常」最多给6个月。但若有必要、最多可给1年。
  • B-1 商务签证,单次停留,包括首次停留期限 + 延期,「通常」最多给1年。
  • B-2 因私旅游和探亲,入境时首次停留期限默认给6个月。延期申请单次最多给6个月。没有明确的「总共不能呆多长时间」限制,审理官员重点关注的不是你需要停留几个月、会不会超过1年,而是申请人是否有明确的计划离开美国、还是有移民倾向、想在美国无限期呆下去。

最后:不管如何解读,只要你申请了延期、并且 USCIS 批准了,在该停留期限内你的身份合法,不用担心「加起来是否超过了1年」这个问题。你的签证不会因此作废。当然,若你在美国呆了很多个月、离开后很快又回来,CBP 官员有可能会怀疑你有移民倾向,可能会不再给你6个月的默认停留期限、更极端的情形甚至拒绝你入境。

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