如何简单地油漆家具和粉刷墙壁

最近我实在是看不顺眼满墙的毕加索画作,刚好又买了个二手柜子,于是就来搞个小工程,效果还不错。朋友都问我这咋弄的?其实不难喔,于是来无私分享啦。我不是专业装修,所以我的经验都是零基础的你也能做到的!

被娃乱画的墙壁,令我欲哭无泪

必备工具

油漆

油漆可以在 Walmart, Home Depot 等地方买,或者更专业的可以去 Sherwin-Williams 。如果你想涂回现有的颜色可是家里没剩余油漆了,可以从家具或墙壁上铲下来一小块油漆,拿去 Home Depot 这类家居店 color match 。

我涂墙壁用的是上任屋主留下来的乳胶漆。有白色和棕色蛋壳色两种,白色的乳胶漆我拿来做为底漆。乳胶漆干得快,也没啥味道,涂完几个小时就干了,马上可以摆家具。

涂柜子我用的是白色的水性油漆,号称 primer + paint 二合一。分别买 primer 和 paint 也是可以的,而且更推荐这么做。我自己懒,就买了二合一。喜欢原木色的可以用 wood stain 哦,就不必上漆了。

现在的油漆大多数水性的。有些需要搅拌好,你可以随便用一个什么木条,或者在买油漆时问销售员要几个搅拌棒;有些写了 pre-mixed 就不用搅拌。油漆的质感有 matte, glossy, semi-gloss, glittery,看你喜欢什么样的了。我个人觉得 semi-gloss 挺柔和的。

不建议用喷漆,喷漆只适合喷涂小物体。我曾试过用喷漆喷涂一个小木箱,不但弄得到处都是漆(幸好我在室外弄),而且一罐漆喷一个小木箱就用光了。

乳胶漆用量

按照底漆涂一遍,面漆涂两遍的涂法,400 sq ft 的面积,底漆需要一加仑,面漆需要两加仑。你按照自己的面积推算就行了,建议多买点,以后 touch up 用。

刷子

有海绵滚轮,海绵刷,人造毛刷。海绵滚轮适合涂墙壁,作业快,涂得匀,还不留痕。海绵刷和毛刷涂柜子,因为它们刷头小,好控制,可以涂到精细的部位。因为现在市面上多是水性油漆,不推荐用动物毛刷,动物毛刷和水性油漆八字不合。

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买了刷子也可以顺便买个油漆盘,很多刷子套装里面就带了油漆盘,用一次性盘子也可以。

胶带

用来覆盖不需要被油漆的部位,以免「误伤」。读者 Eric 推荐用 Painter’s Tape,不易令油漆渗透和断裂。

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ScotchBlue™ Painter's Tape, 3' Core, 2' x 60 Yd.
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Scotch Contractor Grade Masking Tape, 0.94 inches by 60.1 yards (360 yards total), 2020, 6 Rolls
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手套和其他防护工具

手套除了防止油漆弄脏手,还能保护我们不被小毛刺扎伤。其他防护工具包括不怕脏的衣服,铺地面的报纸,盖家具的塑料布等。

步骤

清洁

首先是要把墙壁和柜子或其他你要油漆的家具擦干净。

如果你家墙壁没有涂鸦作品,就只需要用清水擦一遍。我家是被孩子画得一团乱,有蜡笔、铅笔、圆珠笔、记号笔,我已经放弃治疗了,不过想着死马当做活马医,用 magic eraser(魔术擦)擦擦看。结果如下:蜡笔、铅笔能擦掉,圆珠笔能擦掉一半,记号笔擦不掉。 PS: 画在门窗上的啥也擦不掉。

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墙上还有孩子贴的贴纸,我尝试撕下来,还是留了很多背胶。对付这种背胶,我推荐用 Goo Gone,亲测不会令乳胶漆墙壁变色。 PS:如果是玻璃上的贴纸,用 Windex 就可以去除。 Windex 不建议用在墙壁上。

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对于柜子,我先将把手都拆下来,抽屉拿出来,里外擦干净。讲究点的可以用 paint stripper 和刮刀把旧油漆除去,用砂纸打磨,再用 deglosser 擦干净。我懒,只把柜顶泡水损坏的地方打磨了,没有去除其余部位旧漆。

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准备

地板铺好报纸,不能移开的家具盖上塑料布,墙壁上的插座板拆下来,小钉子洞可以用石膏补一下。细微裂缝无妨,底漆就可以盖住了。 3M 这个石膏一罐可以用很久,放久了干掉可以加点水搅拌一下,就能继续用了,居家必备!

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要上漆的家具移到车库(打开车库门)或室外,底下垫纸皮。家具如果有小缺口或小洞,可以用 wood filler 或 Epoxy 修补。不想被涂漆的部位可以用胶带贴着。

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上底漆

这一步不必追求完美,有刷痕不均匀也没事。主要就是打个底,让新油漆覆盖力更好,不至于透出原先的底色。上完底漆后,用细目砂纸把不小心厚涂、突起的地方打磨一下,不需要太用力。

上面漆

只有一个原则:少量多次(多层),第一层油漆干了再上第二层,忌厚涂。基本上两三层就已经很漂亮了。虽然上油漆这一步花的时间最多,但它是最简单的,涂涂涂就行了。反而是前期的清洁准备最花功夫。

组装

油漆干了之后,把墙壁的插座版装回去,柜子安上新把手。下面看看我的成果:

墙壁粉刷前 vs 魔术擦清理后 vs 粉刷后
衣柜涂装前 vs 涂装&换新把手后

视频教学

YouTube 上有很多教程,我也是在 YouTube 上面慢慢学习哒!下面这个涂装旧衣柜的视频就非常直观,他的旧衣柜跟我的一样,也是有一个把手坏了。

还有下面 Lowe’s 的视频, 介绍了涂墙的几个基本要点。我来帮大家划重点:胶带遮盖不想涂的区域,用湿布稍微润湿滚轮,移动速度不要太快。

让你不走弯路的小妙招

我也不是一试就成功,我走的弯路,能让你们不走弯路,还能省钱。

  • 磨刀不误砍柴工。前期清理工作做好,油漆起来就会很顺畅。就跟化妆一样,先洗干净脸才好上妆。
  • 孩子的涂鸦一定要用魔术擦尽量擦掉。魔术擦最有名的牌子是 Mr.Clean,约 $1/块;Walmart 自有品牌 Great Value 牌约 $0.75/块;推荐买 Dollar Tree 的 Scrub Buddies Quick Eraser,$0.5/块!效果杠杠的。
  • 只是为了遮盖涂鸦的话,不必涂底漆。
  • 先用海绵刷给涂鸦做个遮瑕(两层),再用海绵滚轮涂一到两层就很完美了。这样做能大大节省油漆用量,毕竟油漆不便宜。
  • Masking tape 可以反复使用几次再丢弃。涂完一个区域,把胶带撕下来,粘在下一个区域即可。
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