公民父母和配偶即使身份过期仍然可以申请绿卡

最近有多位读者询问,父母已经在中国申请了绿卡(或准备申请绿卡),这次持 B1/B2 签证来玩,因疫情和航班取消无法回国,办理延期有何注意事项?

适用领馆处理程序的境外申请人,以合法身份来到美国之后可以选择调整身份(Adjustment of Status; AOS)。不过,通常建议不要在入境90天内转换或调整身份,原因参见这篇文章。另外,持 B1/B2 签证入境调整身份(尤其是入境之后很快就提交 I-485),有被认为「入境时隐瞒真实意图」的法律风险,参见这篇文章。最后,通常来说申请人在提交 AOS 时必须有合法身份。

但是,提问的读者若是美国公民(只有美国公民才可以为父母申请绿卡),那么他们的父母是 immediate relatives,即使 out-of-status 仍然可以调整身份。参见 USCIS Policy Manual[链接]

An alien is barred from adjustment of status if the alien is in an unlawful immigration status on the date of filing the adjustment application. [1] This bar to adjustment does not apply to: 

– Immediate relatives; [2] 
– Violence Against Women Act (VAWA)-based applicants;
– Certain alien doctors and their accompanying spouse and children; [3] 
– Certain G-4 international organization employees, NATO-6 employees, and their family members; [4] 
– Special immigrant juveniles; [5] 
– Certain members of the U.S. armed forces and their spouses and children; [6] or
– Employment-based applicants who meet the INA 245(k) exemption.

以及[链接]

Any adjustment applicant is ineligible to adjust status under INA 245(a) if, other than through no fault of his or her own or for technical reasons, [1] he or she has ever:

– Failed to continuously maintain a lawful status since entry into the United States; [2] or
– Violated the terms of his or her nonimmigrant status. [3] 

The INA 245(c)(2) and INA 245(c)(8) bars to adjustment do not apply to: 

– Immediate relatives; [4] 
– Violence Against Women Act (VAWA)-based applicants;
– Certain physicians and their accompanying spouse and children; [5] 
– Certain G-4 international organization employees, NATO-6 employees, and their family members; [6] 
– Special immigrant juveniles; [7] or
– Certain members of the U.S. armed forces and their spouse and children. [8] 

Employment-based applicants also may be eligible for exemption from this bar under INA 245(k). [9] 

移民法中的「immediate relatives」包括[参见]:美国公民的配偶;美国公民的21岁以下未婚子女;21岁以上美国公民的父母。「Immediate relatives」 除了在 out-of-status 期间仍然可以调整身份以外,还不受绿卡配额限制、无需排期。对于本文开头那些提问的读者来说,我的建议都是:没有必要浪费钱申请 B1/B2 延期,既然已经打算为父母申请、甚至已经申请了绿卡,如今人在境内,直接提交 I-485 调整身份,同时申请 Advance Parole 即可。

免责声明:本文仅为提供信息之用,不是 legal advice。

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