居民+非居民配偶可按已婚夫妻联合报税

我之前介绍过税务居民(Resident Alien; RA)和非居民(Nonresident Alien; NRA)的区别,有读者问,如果夫妻俩一个是 RA、一个是 NRA,怎么报税?

居民+非居民配偶的选择

有两种选择:

  • 分开申报。
  • 可以将另一位 NRA 配偶视为 RA 并联合申报(Married Filing Jointly)。这通常是最优的办法。除了 RA + NRA 外,Dual-Status Alien + NRA 甚至 Dual-Status Alien + Dual-Status Alien 都可以使用这以方法联合报税,只要其中一人在年底的时候是居民即可。

参见 IRS 说明

If, at the end of your tax year, you are married and one spouse is a U.S. citizen or a resident alien and the other is a nonresident alien, you can choose to treat the nonresident as a U.S. resident. This includes situations in which one of you is a nonresident alien at the beginning of the tax year, but a resident alien at the end of the year, and the other is a nonresident alien at the end of the year.

If you and your nonresident alien spouse do not make the election to treat your nonresident alien spouse as a U.S. resident alien, you may be able to use head of household filing status. To use this status, you must pay more than half the cost of maintaining a household for certain dependents or relatives other than your nonresident alien spouse.

若选择将 NRA 配偶视为 RA:

  • 两人的联邦个人所得税都按 RA 计算,社保(Social Security)和 Medicare 仍然可按 NRA 计算;参见 Aliens Employed in the U.S. – Social Security Taxes.
  • 两人必须联合申报(即不能选择将 NRA 配偶视为 RA 然后又两人分开申报)。
  • 作为 RA 两人都必须申报全球(美国境内 + 美国境外)收入。
  • 税务居民不能申请外国居民享受的 tax treaty benefits,但中美税务协议规定的豁免情形除外;该条款原文为:「Notwithstanding any provision of the Agreement, the United States may tax its citizens. Except as provided in paragraph 2 of Article 8, paragraph 2 of Article 17, and Articles 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24 and 26 of this Agreement, the United States may tax its residents (as determined under Article 4).」 这些豁免情形包括联属企业、退休金、政府服务、教师和研究人员、学生和实习人员、「其他所得」、「消除双重征税」等条款。简单说,普通的 J/F 等身份仍然可以享受免联邦税、$5000 免税额等优惠。
J1签证3年免联邦税和F1签证$5,000免税额政策
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