移民局延期拒信 “you will be required to establish your admissibility again” 的含义

今天又有读者问:

我今天收到 USCIS 发给我岳父岳母的信件,里面写着 「A review of official records shows that you departed the United States on September 28, 2020. Because you have departed the United States, you will be unable to satisfy the biometric requirement of the Form I-539. Regulations require all applicants on a Form I-539 attend a biometric appointment at their nearest ASC. USCIS is denying your application as a matter of discretion. Should you seek to re-enter the United States as a B nonimmigrant, you will be required to establish your admissibility again and be granted admission as a B-2 nonimmigrant by U.S. Customs and Border Protection.」 最后一句话是什么意思呢?签证没有取消,下次能不能入境还是看海关?是这个意思吗?

这个问题已经有多名读者问过,因此集中解释一下。这句话的含义并不是说你的签证被取消了、下次来美国要重新申请签证,而是说你下次入境仍需要边检官员的批准 —— 其实不只是你,也不只是 B2 签证,所有人入境都需要边检官员批准。

签证并不是入境许可。很多人以为「只要有合法签证就可入境美国」,这是误解。有了签证,只是允许你乘坐飞机、轮船、汽车,来到美国的边境口岸,向边检官员申请入境美国;如果没有签证,你连来此申请的资格都没有(航班不会让你登机)。你是否可以入境,最终取决于边检官员(USCBP)的决定。

参见美国国务院官网说明

How Can I Use a Visa to Enter the United States?

Having a U.S. visa allows you to travel to a port of entry, airport or land border crossing, and request permission of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Customs and Border Protection (CBP) inspector to enter the United States. While having a visa does not guarantee entry to the United States, it does indicate a consular officer at a U.S. Embassy or Consulate abroad has determined you are eligible to seek entry for that specific purpose. DHS/CBP inspectors, guardians of the nation’s borders, are responsible for admission of travelers to the United States, for a specified status and period of time. DHS also has responsibility for immigration matters while you are present in the United States.

比如说,你持 B2 签证乘飞机来到美国海关,申请入境,边检官员检查了你的签证,在系统里看看有没有可疑之处,盘问你来美国的目的、以及其他细节,若一切都看起来没问题,决定允许你入境,于是在你的签证盖章、给你 6 个月的停留期,此时你的 B2 身份才生效,这就是你的 B2 nonimmigrant status 。

移民局拒信里的这句话,「Should you seek to re-enter the United States as a B nonimmigrant, you will be required to establish your admissibility again and be granted admission as a B-2 nonimmigrant by U.S. Customs and Border Protection」,说的就是这个意思:下次你持 B 签证来美国,仍需获得 USCBP 官员批准、拿到 B2 status,方可入境。这句话是模板,适用于所有外国人,可忽略不管它。不只是你,所有 B-2 乘客,以及其他签证的乘客,都需要 USCBP 官员批准方可入境。

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