美国超市常见的香料和香草

老美很能折腾,我在超市看到那一大片货架上的香料,有点吓到,但香料味道是萝卜青菜各有所爱,也许你试过就爱上了呢?咱们也来认识一下美国常见的香草和香料吧。

Black Pepper 黑胡椒

老美的万用香料,不管什么东西,撒点盐、黑胡椒粉,淋点油,拌一拌,丢烤箱搞定。黑胡椒也是牛排的好搭档,越是品质好的牛排,越是不需要加别的调料,盐和黑胡椒足矣。

读懂美国超市牛羊鸡肉的等级和认证标签
McCormick Black Peppercorn Grinder, 2.5 oz
9,802 个好评
McCormick Black Peppercorn Grinder, 2.5 oz
  • Black pepper with a sharp, earthy flavor and aroma
  • Built-in, adjustable grinder to deliver fresh pepper every time
  • Enhances flavor and adds heat to any dish

据说现磨的黑胡椒比较香,我是分不出来有什么不同,只是拿着研磨瓶的那一刻感觉像 Gordon Ramsay 附身。

Cinnamon 肉桂

让人爱恨交加的小妖精,甜点饮料中常见。肉桂卷想必大家都吃过了,也有人拿肉桂棒当咖啡搅拌棒,肉桂香味在搅动中慢慢融入咖啡。肉桂棒磨成粉就是肉桂粉,肉桂粉和白糖混在一起后做为甜甜圈的 topping 非常令人陶醉。还有苹果派,少了肉桂粉就不是那个味道了。

McCormick Gourmet Organic Saigon Cinnamon Sticks, 0.75 oz
  • McCormick Gourmet Organic Saigon Cinnamon Sticks have rich taste & aroma
  • Cinnamon comes from the inner bark of the trunk of the tropical cinnamon tree
  • Our carefully sourced cinnamon sticks are certified Organic and non GMO

Cumin 孜然

孜然粒 cumin seeds 和孜然粉 ground cumin 超市都很容易买到,吃货国子民对它很熟悉了。如果需要大量,去华人超市买大包装的更划算。墨西哥菜、印度菜常用孜然粉。

McCormick Cumin Seed, 0.95 oz
174 个好评
McCormick Cumin Seed, 0.95 oz
  • McCormick Cumin Seed brings smoky, nutty flavor to curries, chili and tacos
  • Our cumin seeds are carefully selected for earthy flavor
  • Essential to Tex-Mex and Southwestern dishes
McCormick Ground Cumin, 4.5 oz
6,229 个好评
McCormick Ground Cumin, 4.5 oz
  • Earthy warmth and subtle citrus flavor
  • Always ground from whole cumin seeds
  • A favorite in Mexican, Latin American, Indian & Middle Eastern cuisines

Cloves 丁香

有整颗 whole cloves 的也有打成粉 ground cloves 的,常用来炖肉。你们知道丁香也是 ketchup 和 Worchestershire sauce 秘密配方中的一员么?

365 Everyday Value, Whole Cloves, 1.36 oz
  • Brought to you by Whole Foods Market. Our standards are what set us apart, and our quality is what...
  • Product of Sri Lanka.
  • Certified GMO-Free, Certified Kosher.
Frontier Natural Products Cloves, Ground, 1.92 Ounce
  • GROUND CLOVES - Frontier Co-op offers high quality ground cloves (Syzygium aromaticum L. Merr.)...
  • FLAVORFUL AND AROMATIC - Intensely aromatic and richly flavored, cloves have been a major player in...
  • VERSATILE USES - Our ground cloves are perfect for use in pickling, marinating, and spicing. Also...

Garlic Powder 大蒜粉

华人料理多用新鲜大蒜,老美则多用大蒜粉,因为方便。主要用来腌制(marinate)或做大蒜面包(garlic bread)。大蒜粉没有新鲜大蒜的刺激味,但更香,也算是个万用香料。

McCormick Garlic Powder, 3.12 oz
  • Smoother and more mellow than raw garlic
  • Made from fresh, whole garlic cloves that have been dried and ground
  • Powdered garlic disperses completely and evenly into your dishes

Onion Powder 洋葱粉

洋葱粉在腌肉时常常和大蒜粉搭配用,和我们用葱姜水去腥的原理差不多,添香。

McCormick California Style Onion Powder Coarse Grind Blend, 2.62 oz
  • Add fresh onion flavor, aroma and a touch of color to all kinds of dishes
  • Salt-free onion powder with minced green onions and parsley flakes
  • 1 tsp onion powder = 1/4 fresh minced onion

Ground Ginger 姜粉

姜粉是 gingerbread 必备调料,味道比鲜姜浓郁很多,我们华人可能不习惯。

Simply Organic Ground Ginger Root, Certified Organic, 1.64-Ounce Container | Zingiber officinale Roscoe
  • ORGANIC GINGER ROOT - Don’t let its mellow yellow color fool you. There’s nothing mellow about...
  • DELICIOUS AND VERSATILE - Simply Organic ground ginger root is a versatile spice that goes way...
  • PURE AND POTENT FLAVOR - Simply Organic believes in pure and potent flavor grown at the source, and...

Nutmeg 肉豆蔻

可以买整颗 whole nutmeg,自己用擦子擦成粉,或直接买肉豆蔻粉 ground nutmeg 。常和肉桂一起用在甜点中,也是个秋意浓浓的香料,闻起来有木料香味。

The Spice Hunter Organic Nutmeg, Whole, 1.8 oz. jar
  • Nutmeg, Whole | Organic | Kosher Certified
  • Grate over pasta, spinach, egg dishes, coffee, custard and fruit desserts!
  • Nutmeg is an aromatic spice used in both sweet and savory dishes.
McCormick Gourmet Organic Ground Nutmeg, 1.81 oz
  • Warm spicy-sweet flavor and rich aroma
  • McCormick Gourmet Organic Ground Nutmeg is hand-picked for distinctive flavor
  • Our sourced nutmeg is certified Organic and non GMO

Paprika 红椒粉

Paprika 是用红灯笼椒磨成的粉,非常温和,甜味大过辣味,其实要说它辣我都觉得在搞笑呢。多用于给肉类/海鲜增添颜色。

McCormick Paprika, 2.12 oz
  • Fruity, slightly sweet and toasty flavor
  • Vivid red color makes it the perfect garnish for deviled eggs and pasta salads
  • Always starts with whole, ripe peppers

Chili Powder 辣椒粉

Chili powder 并不是某种特定辣椒,通常是几种辣椒和牛至叶(oregano)、脱水大蒜一起打成的粉,有的品牌还会参杂一点 cumin,购买时记得看标签。有一点点辣,是国民美食 chili 的必备调料。

McCormick Chili Powder, 2.5 oz
2,118 个好评
McCormick Chili Powder, 2.5 oz
  • A robust blend of ripe peppers, herbs and spices
  • Deep rich, flavorful heat, vibrant red color and aroma
  • Non GMO

Cayenne 卡宴辣椒粉

Cayenne pepper 可以理解为一般意义上的辣椒粉,是真的辣。然而美国人并不太能吃辣,卡宴辣椒粉的辣度跟我们的辣椒面比起来不过是 piece of cake 。如果你能买到华人店的辣椒面,就忽略卡宴辣椒粉吧。

McCormick Ground Cayenne Red Pepper, 1.75 oz
  • Starts with whole, ripe peppers
  • Dried and milled under strict quality controls
  • Zesty heat, vivid red color and balanced flavor

Turmeric 印度姜黄

姜黄是姜黄,姜是姜,不一样。可能大家在保健品里面见过它了,姜黄粉当然也是可以直接吃的,也有染色的效果,印度料理中多见。

McCormick Organic Ground Turmeric, 13.25 oz
  • USDA Certified Organic; Non-GMO Project Verified
  • Vivid yellow-orange color and subtle, earthy flavor
  • Easy-to-handle bottle for refilling spice jars

姜黄中含有钾和磷,有肾脏疾病、尤其是在做透析的肾脏病患者,需要限制二者的摄入量。

肾脏疾病患者应该避免的保健品及注意事项

美国常见保健品的功效与注意事项

Allspice 多香果

我以前一直以为 allspice 就是把多种 spice 混合起来,真是图样图森破。其实人家就叫 allspice 多香果,是由多香果树未成熟的果子干燥后而来,有整颗包装的 whole allspice,超市常见的是已经磨成粉的 ground allspice,做 gingerbread 、 pumpkin pie 常用。

McCormick Gourmet All Natural Whole Jamaican Allspice, 1.25 oz (Pack of 3)
  • Aromatic McCormick Gourmet Whole Jamaican Allspice has peppery, sweet flavor
  • Flavor evokes a blend of cinnamon, nutmeg and cloves
  • Pea-sized berry of an evergreen tree from the Caribbean & Central America
McCormick Ground Nutmeg, 16 oz
  • Sweet, nutty flavor
  • Whole nutmeg is hand-picked for intense nutty flavor
  • Enjoyed in world cuisines including Indian, French, Swedish & Middle Eastern

Coriander Seed 香菜籽

香菜恐惧党可能会吓死了,除了香菜叶,还有香菜籽?!

McCormick Gourmet Organic Coriander Seed, 0.87 oz
  • McCormick Gourmet Organic Coriander Seed adds warm, lemony notes
  • Our carefully sourced coriander is certified Organic and non GMO
  • Versatile spice flavors sweet and savory recipes

其实香菜籽 coriander seed 和香菜叶味道不一样,带着隐隐的柑橘香气。也许你在印度咖喱、德国香肠都吃过它的味道,只是你不知道那是香菜籽罢了。

Poppy Seeds 罂粟籽

罂粟籽 poppy seeds 是黑黑的、小小种子状香料,不要被名字吓到,它是无毒!安全!的!带着淡淡甜味,做为 topping 洒在面包、冰淇淋上,还有就是 sweet onion sauce 里,你们在 subway 一定吃过。

365 Everyday Value, Poppy Seed, 2.4 Ounce
  • Brought to you by whole foods market
  • Poppy seed

Vanilla 香草

无人不知无人不晓的香料了吧!喜欢有仪式感的就自己刮香草荚 vanilla beans,喜欢方便的就直接买香草精,注意买 pure vanilla extract,不要买 imitation 。

McCormick Gourmet All Natural Madagascar Vanilla Beans, 2 count
  • Contains 2 beans
  • Packaged in the USA
  • Cut in 2-inch pieces. Cut 1 bean for 4 servings ice cream, custards, or cream sauces
McCormick All Natural Pure Vanilla Extract, 16 fl oz
  • Premium pure vanilla bean extract with a deep, rich taste and color
  • Each batch blended for consistent flavor in every bottle
  • A baker’s best friend — even balances meat and seafood dishes

接下来介绍一下真正的香草 — Herbs,读饿不死,不是喝不死,H 不发音。

Parsley 欧芹

我第一次知道 parsley 和下面几种香草,是因为电影毕业生插曲 Scarborough Fair

Are you going to Scarborough Fair?
Parsley, sage, rosemary and thyme
Remember me to one who lives there
She once was a true love of mine

Parsley 有两种,平叶和卷叶。平叶欧芹看起来和香菜有点像,当然你一闻就分出来了。

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Italian_flat_leaf_parsley.jpg
平叶欧芹(图:Wikimedia)

卷叶欧芹其实在中国很常见,用于饭店摆盘,萝卜花旁边那一撮绿叶子就是。

https://pixabay.com/en/parsley-herb-spices-341936/
卷叶欧芹(图:Pixabay)

欧芹要新鲜,很容易买到,自己种一不小心就长成一大片。干燥欧芹香味尽失,浪费钱。

Sage 鼠尾草

和下面几种香草一样,常用于腌制禽类,如果你偷懒,买一瓶 poultry seasoning,里面就是百里香、鼠尾草、迷迭香等的混合物。喜欢柔和一点就用新鲜鼠尾草,因为干燥磨成粉的鼠尾草相当呛人……

McCormick Poultry Seasoning, 0.65 oz
1,137 个好评
McCormick Poultry Seasoning, 0.65 oz
  • Expertly blended for savory herb flavor
  • A mix of thyme, sage and other herbs and spices
  • For chicken dishes like roast chicken or fried chicken, pot pies, stews & chicken salad
https://pixabay.com/en/ladybug-sage-plant-summer-animal-1428899/
鼠尾草(图:Pixabay)

Rosemary 迷迭香

迷迭香是我最喜欢的香草,闻着味道就心情平静。油脂能带出它的香味,牛油融化后加入迷迭香煎一煎,淋在烤鸡或牛排上特别棒。或者切碎了做为烤鸡的腌料,剪一条和肉一起炖。

https://pixabay.com/en/rosemary-herbs-green-fresh-1347087/
Rosemary 迷迭香(图:Pixabay)

不管是新鲜的还是干燥的迷迭香,只要是整束的枝条,香味都很浓,但超市里的小罐子都是捋下来的干叶子,味道就大打折扣。

Thyme 百里香

百里香也是主要用于禽类的腌制,常和柠檬组 CP 。新鲜的百里香香味并没有新鲜迷迭香浓郁,但干燥磨成粉的百里香简直是大杀器,手一定要轻!

https://www.flickr.com/photos/alicehenneman/7788318796
Thyme 百里香(图:Alice Henneman)

Basil 罗勒

罗勒常见有两类(其实还有更多类),圆形叶的 sweet basil 和尖叶子的 Thai basil 。

Sweet basil 就是老美常用的那种,做 pizza topping 、意大利面、青酱。如果你看到食谱里叫你加 basil,请买 sweet basil 。

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ac/BasilikumGenovesergro%C3%9Fbl%C3%A4ttriger.jpg
Sweet basil(图:Wikimedia)

Thai basil 则是亚洲国家常用的,潮汕人用来烹制海鲜,越南人做春卷、牛肉粉,泰国人做打抛猪肉。 Basil 新鲜的比干燥的美味多了,有条件的话自己种一盆,特好养活。

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/Thai_basil_with_flowers.jpg
Thai basil(图:Wikimedia)

Oregano 牛至叶

牛至叶,也叫披萨草,顾名思义就是撒在披萨上的,熬番茄肉酱也很搭,反正它用来跟番茄料理搭配最好,被誉为意大利料理的精髓。只要撒点 oregano 和 basil,立马充满意大利风情。买干燥的就行了。

https://pixabay.com/en/oregano-herbs-kitchen-cook-321037/
Oregano 牛至叶(图:Pixabay)

Dill 莳萝

新鲜的莳萝叶子呈羽毛状,和小茴香很像。莳萝叶子很适合作为腌料和肉类、鱼类搭配,也可以切碎混入沙拉酱。莳萝种子则常用来做腌黄瓜,所以你会在超市看到 dill pickle 。

https://pixabay.com/en/food-spice-cooking-sheet-dill-2288443/
Dill 莳萝(图:Pixabay)

Bay 月桂叶/香叶

咱们卤肉放的香叶就是 bay leaf,老美炖肉也放,可见世界大同。使用方法是整片丢进锅子里和肉一起炖,最后捞出来弃之。

Gel Spice Turkish Bay Laurel Leaf, Dried Bay Leaves, Whole Bay Leave, Bay Leaf Herbs for Cooking | Professional Kitchen Size - 8.5 OZ
2,711 个好评
Gel Spice Turkish Bay Laurel Leaf, Dried Bay Leaves, Whole Bay Leave, Bay Leaf Herbs for Cooking | Professional Kitchen Size - 8.5 OZ
  • Classic in sauces and soups
  • Used in restaurants and home gourmet cooking.
  • Aromatic and Gourmet

Chives 韭菜

神马!老美把韭菜当作香草,养的细细的还要好几块钱?就为了切碎做 garnish? 我觉得没必要买,撒把葱花儿一样的。

Organic Chives, 0.5 oz Clamshell
988 个好评
Organic Chives, 0.5 oz Clamshell
  • Organic and natural
  • Fresh and flavorful
  • Clamshell

Mint 薄荷

常见的有 peppermint 和 spearmint,我在超市买到的通常是 spearmint,做冷饮,泡茶,甜点,越南粉,越南春卷。薄荷我好像没看到有卖干燥的,都是一小盆一小盒新鲜卖。

https://www.maxpixel.net/Tea-Herbs-Peppermint-Moroccan-Mint-Teeminze-Mint-2396530
Peppermint(图:Max Pixel)
https://pxhere.com/en/photo/839751
Spearmint(图:pxhere)

藏红花 Saffron

很贵很贵的香料,比白松露还贵,原产于古波斯(现伊朗)。西班牙海鲜饭的必备香料,可以把饭染成黄色,但其实没什么味道(也许是我这平民舌头尝不出来)。华人用它来泡茶,有活血化瘀的功效。香料藏红花是来自臧红花花朵的雌蕊,一朵花里就两三丝,只能人工采集,所以特别贵,超市里 1.7g 的藏红花卖 $18,Amazon 上略微便宜一点。

Zaran Saffron, Superior Saffron Threads (Super Negin) Premium grade Saffron Spice for Paella, Risotto, Tea's, and all Culinary Uses (2)
11,475 个好评
Zaran Saffron, Superior Saffron Threads (Super Negin) Premium grade Saffron Spice for Paella, Risotto, Tea's, and all Culinary Uses (2)
  • Highest Quality Saffron Threads, Super Negin Grade Saffron. Zaran Saffron is a Family-Owned and...
  • Zaran Saffron is Perfect for all your Cooking needs, such as Golden Rice, Paella, Risotto, Golden...
  • Lab Tested in accordance with ISO 3632, our Saffron is tested for the highest levels of (Crocin)...

这些都是我们平时比较常用到的香草香料,只占香料帝国中的一小部分。

我家常备的干燥香料有:garlic powder, onion powder, chili powder, paprika, cumin, oregano, bay leaf, cinnamon 。气候允许,我会种新鲜的 rosemary, thyme, mint, parsley, basil 。偷懒不想做菜的时候,就拖出一只鸡,抹上香料烤一烤,就是一顿美味的晚餐。

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