国家卫生研究院:薄荷油的功效和副作用

薄荷油 (Peppermint Oil) 是从薄荷的花和叶子中提取的精油,除了可以用来制作化妆品,也用于一些疾病的治疗,例如缓解肠易激综合症 (IBS)、普通感冒、鼻窦感染等疾病症状;外用薄荷油也被用于缓解头痛、肌肉酸痛、关节痛和皮肤瘙痒等;在芳香疗法中,薄荷油被用于治疗咳嗽和普通感冒,改善心功能和减压。

以下主要整理自国家卫生研究院关于薄荷油健康功效的回顾文章。

肠易激综合症 (IBS)

据统计,多达 1/5 的美国人患有 IBS。这是一种慢性疾病,症状有腹绞痛、便秘或腹泻等。病因尚不清楚,情绪、压力、食物和饮酒都可能触发疾病。薄荷油肠溶胶囊对改善成人肠易激综合症可能有帮助,可以减轻腹痛和腹胀等症状。

  • 美国胃肠病学院 (American College of Gastroenterology) 在 2014 年的一篇论文中指出,薄荷油肠溶胶囊在改善 IBS 症状方面优于安慰剂。[来源]
  • 2019 年的一项综述研究发现,薄荷油可改善腹痛和 IBS 的其他症状。[来源]

其他胃肠道疾病

  • 研究表明,混合薄荷油、香菜籽油或薄荷叶的产品对缓解功能性消化不良和胃部胀痛可能有帮助 [来源],但没有证据表明单独服用薄荷油也有效。相反,单独服用薄荷油可能加剧消化不良。
  • 在对儿童和青少年胃肠道疾病的研究中发现,与安慰剂相比,薄荷油肠溶胶囊可有效缩短腹疼的持续时间,降低腹痛频率,减轻疼痛程度。[来源]

恶心

  • 小型研究发现,接受手术的患者在吸入薄荷油后恶心程度降低。[来源] 但另一项研究认为,薄荷油对术后恶心的缓解作用比较小。[来源]
  • 孕妇在妊娠初期也会恶心和呕吐。但一项对 56 位孕妇的调查发现,薄荷油芳香疗法在缓解妊娠恶心和呕吐方面的作用与安慰剂相同。[来源]

延伸阅读:如何缓解孕吐以及美国的防吐好物推荐

紧张性头痛及偏头痛

  • 有限证据表明,局部外用薄荷油可能缓解紧张性头痛 (tension headaches)。
  • 小型研究发现,在额头和太阳穴局部使用含有 10% 薄荷醇的溶液,对延长偏头痛 (migraine headaches) 的止痛效果、减轻恶心和畏光症状可能有效。[来源]
  • 另一项研究调查了偏头痛患者使用薄荷醇凝胶的情况。当偏头痛开始时,将薄荷醇凝胶涂在皮肤上,使用后两个小时,头痛严重程度有改善。[来源]

延伸阅读:缓解偏头痛的保健品及用药知识

哺乳期乳头损伤

将凝胶、水或薄荷油混合,可以充当皮肤润滑剂,局部涂抹有助于减轻疼痛和皮肤破裂。但薄荷醇可能会对婴幼儿呼吸产生不利影响,因此要在母乳喂养后涂抹,母乳喂养前要擦干净。

其他疼痛或不适

  • 另有研究调查了薄荷油片剂对吞咽困难 (difficulty swallowing) 和非心脏性胸痛 (non-cardiac chest pain) 患者的影响,超过一半的参与者报告薄荷油片剂对改善其不适和疼痛症状有帮助。[来源]
  • 少量研究表明,薄荷油可能有助于减少医疗检查程序引起的痉挛和不适,如内窥镜检查 (endoscopy examination) 或钡灌肠检查 (barium enema examination) 等。

皮肤瘙痒

  • 在一项针对薄荷油对慢性瘙痒的小型研究中发现,1% 的薄荷油溶液可以缩短瘙痒的持续时间,减轻瘙痒的严重程度。[来源]
  • 有研究发现,每天两次涂抹 0.5% 的薄荷油溶液,持续两周,可缓解妊娠期瘙痒。[来源]

薄荷油的安全性

薄荷油已在临床试验中得到应用,口服薄荷油片剂或以常规剂量局部涂抹通常是安全的。薄荷油很少引起过敏。使用或服用前请咨询医生。

口服薄荷油也可能有副作用,包括烧心、恶心、腹痛和口干等。肠溶薄荷油胶囊可以防止产生烧心等不适感觉。外用薄荷油的副作用可能有皮疹和刺激性。应远离婴幼儿存放。

由薄荷叶制成的薄荷茶通常是安全的,但食用大量薄荷叶的长期安全性还不清楚。

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