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美国常见便秘泻药和软便剂

泻药包括缓和泻药、容积性泻药、润滑性泻药、渗透性泻药、盐类泻药、刺激性泻药。

1 、缓和泻药

Emollient laxative,即大便软化剂(stool softner),有效成分多库酯钠(docusate sodium 、常见品牌 HealthA2Z 、 Colace 等)或多库酯钙(docusate calcium 、常见品牌 Surfak 等),可帮助湿润和软化大便。它们效果温和,可经常使用、预防便秘,用于治疗的效果有限,适用于缓解临时的便秘、以及轻微的长期便秘。

HealthA2Z® Stool Softener | Red & White Capsules | Docusate Sodium 100mg | Dependable | Gentle Constipation Relief (400 Counts (Pack of 1))
8,039 个好评
$13.49 on Amazon
HealthA2Z 软化剂|400 粒
多库酯钠 100mg
Major Pharmaceutical Stool Softener Docusate Calcium 240mg, 100 Softgels
$9.80 on Amazon
Rugby 大便软化剂|100 粒
多库酯钙 240mg

2 、容积性泻药

Bulk-forming laxative,常见的有效成分有 psyllium「车前子」、 methylcellulose「甲基纤维素」、 calcium polycarbophil「聚卡波非钙」等,工作原理是在粪便中形成吸水的凝胶,使粪便更湿润,同时体积更大、从而刺激你的肠胃蠕动,加快排便。

Fibercon Fiber Therapy For Regularity with Calcium Polycarbophil Bulk-Forming Laxative 90-Count Caplets
105 个好评
N/A on Amazon
Fibercon 高纤维泻药|90 粒
聚卡波非钙 625mg

此类泻药可使用更长时间,副作用的风险较小,对慢性便秘患者来说是很好的选择。然而,它们(相比其他类型的泻药)见效较为缓慢。如连续使用一周以上,应咨询医生同意。

3 、润滑性泻药

Lubricant laxative,有效成分是矿物油(mineral oil 、常见品牌如 Kondremul 等),工作原理是涂抹你的粪便和肠道里,防止水分流失,同时让粪便更加顺滑。矿物油不宜长期使用,因为它可能干扰身体对脂溶性维生素的吸收,如维生素 A 、 D 、 E 、 K 。此类泻药通常用于快速缓解短期的便秘。

Kondremul Lubricant Laxative, Mineral Oil, Plain Flavor, 16 Fluid Ounces
901 个好评
N/A on Amazon
Kondremul 润滑性泻药|16 Oz
矿物油|原味

4 、渗透性泻药

Hyperosmotic laxative,有效成分是聚乙二醇(polyethylene glycol 、常见品牌 GoodSense 等)和甘油(glycerin 、常见品牌 Fleet 等),工作原理是为你的肠道吸取更多水分,从而软化粪便。渗透性泻药与容积性泻药相似:见效较慢、可使用较长时间、副作用风险较小,适用于长期便秘。若连续服用一周以上,应咨询医生同意。

GoodSense ClearLax, Polyethylene Glycol 3350 Powder for Solution, Osmotic Laxative, 17.9 Ounce
$15.97 on Amazon
GoodSense ClearLax 泻药
聚乙二醇粉末|17.9 Oz
Fleet Laxative Glycerin Suppositories for Adult Constipation, Adult Laxative Jar Aloe vera, 50 Count
$3.99 on Amazon
Fleet 成人便秘甘油栓剂
含芦荟|50 片

5 、盐类泻药

Saline laxative,有效成分包括 magnesium citrate「柠檬酸镁」和 magnesium hydroxide「氢氧化镁」,工作原理是将更多的水吸入肠道,从而软化粪便、刺激肠道运动。盐类泻药不宜长期使用,否则可能引起脱水和电解质失衡。

Dulcolax Soft Chews Saline Laxative Gentle Constipation Relief, Magnesium Hydroxide 1200mg, 60 Count, Black Cherry Flavor
N/A on Amazon
Dulcolax 黑樱桃味软糖|60 粒
温和缓解便秘|氢氧化镁 1200mg

大剂量服用含镁的泻药和抗酸剂(镁的摄入量超过 5,000 mg/天)可能导致镁中毒(magnesium toxicity),症状包括低血压、恶心、呕吐、肠梗阻、嗜睡、肌肉无力、呼吸困难、心律不齐甚至心脏骤停等,参见《NIH:镁的 4 大功效和可能的副作用》 。

6 、刺激性泻药

Stimulant laxative,有效成分比沙可啶(bisacodyl 、常见品牌即 Bisacodyl)和番泻苷(sennosides 、常见品牌 Equate),工作原理是刺激肠道,使其运动更强烈。刺激性泻药不宜长期使用,可能引起脱水和电解质失衡。

Rite Aid Fast Relief Laxative Suppositories, Bisacodyl USP, 10mg - 16 Count | Stimulant Laxative | Constipation Relief | Works in 15 Minutes to 1 Hour | Relief of Constipation | Laxative Suppository
N/A on Amazon
Rite Aid 快速泻药|16 片
比沙可啶 10mg|1 小时起效
Rite Aid Maximum Strength Laxative, Sennosides USP Tablets, 25 mg, 96 Count | Constipation Relief Laxative Extra Strength | Overnight Fast Acting Laxative | Fiber Supplement & Stool Softeners Softgels
$13.99 on Amazon
Rite Aid 强效泻药|96 片
番泻苷 25mg|补充纤维剂

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