食物券 / Medicaid / WIC 等福利影响绿卡申请吗?

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Short answer:以前不影响;以后很可能会导致绿卡申请被拒。

Trump 政府日益收紧合法移民政策

Trump 上台后,美国政府日益收紧了合法移民的政策。最直观的一些重要变化包括:

  • 移民局处理速度更慢了。我2016年给岳母申请延期,提交52天之后批准,而现在 USCIS 处理时间越来越久,很多读者反映:提交延期申请之后,过了半年,申请人已经按计划如期回国了,还没收到批复。延期攻略参见这里
  • 以前职业移民不需要面试,现在所有职业移民都需要面试(职业移民也更慢了)。
  • 绿卡排期也比以前更紧张了。以 EB-1 为例:2016 年之前全年有名额、不用排期,2016 财年 H2 首次出现排期,2017 财年排期更早出现,而进入 2018 财年,第1个月就有排期,「EB-1 排期进入常态化」。最新排期参见这里
  • 2018年10月,Trump 在接受采访时表示,计划通过行政命令来取消出生公民权

我9月底和 New Jersey 的一位移民律师聊天,她说,根据她最近一段时间的经验,“They are looking for every reason to deny an application.”

Public Assistance 以前不影响绿卡申请

根据 Medicaid 官网 2014 年的说明,申请 Medicaid/CHIP  “will not affect someone's chances of becoming an LPR or US citizen; the one exception is for individuals receiving long-term care in an institution at government expense”,它还同时表示,申请 Medicaid/CHIP 不属于会影响绿卡申请的“Public Charge”。

截至2018年9月25日我更新本文时,USCIS 的 “Public Charge Fact Sheet” 依然明确表示以下项目不属于 public charge,包括 Medicaid(除非用于长期看护如精神病院、养老院等)、CHIP、SNAP/Food Stamp、WIC、住房福利、non-cash benefits 等:

  • Medicaid and other health insurance and health services (including public assistance for immunizations and for testing and treatment of symptoms of communicable diseases, use of health clinics, short-term rehabilitation services, prenatal care and emergency medical services) other than support for long-term institutional care
  • Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP)
  • Nutrition programs, including the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)- commonly referred to as Food Stamps, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Program, and other supplementary and emergency food assistance programs
  • Housing benefits
  • Child care services
  • Energy assistance, such as the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP)
  • Emergency disaster relief
  • Foster care and adoption assistance
  • Educational assistance (such as attending public school), including benefits under the Head Start Act and aid for elementary, secondary or higher education
  • Job training programs
  • In-kind, community-based programs, services or assistance (such as soup kitchens, crisis counseling and intervention, and short-term shelter)
  • Non-cash benefits under TANF such as subsidized child care or transit subsidies
  • Cash payments that have been earned, such as Title II Social Security benefits, government pensions, and veterans' benefits, and other forms of earned benefits
  • Unemployment compensation

Public Assistance 以后可能导致绿卡被拒

2018年9月22日,Trump 政府提议进一步收紧移民限制,合法使用 public assistance 和 non-cash benefit 亦会导致绿卡被拒;国土安全部新闻稿在这里;提案全文在这里

In making this determination, DHS is proposing to consider current and past receipt of designated public benefits above certain thresholds as a heavily weighed negative factor.  The rule would also make nonimmigrants who receive or are likely to receive designated public benefits above the designated threshold generally ineligible for change of status and extension of stay.

The public benefits proposed to be designated in this rule are federal, state, local, or tribal cash assistance for income maintenance, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Security Income (SSI), Medicaid (with limited exceptions for Medicaid benefits paid for an "emergency medical condition," and for certain disability services related to education), Medicare Part D Low Income Subsidy, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, or food stamps), institutionalization for long-term care at government expense, Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program, Section 8 Project-Based Rental Assistance, and Public Housing.

Medicaid、SNAP/Food Stamp 以及 Public Housing 等项目,以前明确规定不属于 public charge,今后都会成为绿卡被拒的原因。虽然现在该提案还在公示、尚未正式实行,但是根据 Trump 上台后美国政府的政策风向来看,该提案极大可能很快会正式实施。

谁不受此提案影响?

新闻稿说:“By statute, asylees, refugees, and other categories of vulnerable individuals are not subject to the public charge ground of inadmissibility and as such are not impacted by this rule. When considering receipt of public benefits in the public charge inadmissibility determination, DHS would also not consider any public benefits received by aliens serving in active duty or in the Ready Reserve component of the U.S. Armed Forces, or the spouse or child of the service member. Additionally, DHS would not consider disaster relief, emergency medical assistance, benefits received by an alien’s U.S. citizen children, and Medicaid benefits received by children of U.S. citizens and potential adoptive children of U.S. citizens.”

也就是说,以下几类情形暂不受影响:

  • 政治避难者、难民。
  • 美国军人、预备役及其配偶和子女。
  • 灾难救援、紧急医疗服务不属于 public charge。
  • 外国人的公民子女接受的美国福利不属于 public charge。
  • 美国公民的子女或欲领养的儿童接受的 Medicaid 不属于 public charge。

延期和身份转换也会受影响

参见上述提案第29页,“Extension of Stay and Change of Status”:

Pursuant to section 214(a)(1) of the Act, 8 U.S.C. 1184(a)(1), DHS permits certain nonimmigrants to remain in the United States beyond their current period of authorized stay to continue engaging in activities permitted under their current nonimmigrant status. The extension of stay regulations require a nonimmigrant applying for an extension of stay to demonstrate that he or she is admissible to the United States. For some extension of stay applications, the applicant’s financial status is an element of the eligibility determination. DHS has the authority to set conditions in determining whether to grant the extension of stay request. The decision to grant an extension of stay application, with certain limited exceptions, is discretionary.

Under section 248 of the Act, 8 U.S.C. 1258, DHS may permit an alien to change his or her status from one nonimmigrant status to another nonimmigrant status, with certain exceptions, as long as the nonimmigrant is continuing to maintain his or her current nonimmigrant status and is not inadmissible under section 212(a)(9)(B)(i) of the Act, 8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(9)(B)(i). An applicant’s financial status is currently part of the determination for changes to certain nonimmigrant classifications. Like extensions of stay, change of status adjudications are discretionary determinations, and DHS has the authority to set conditions that apply for a nonimmigrant to change his or her status.

就是说:延期和身份转换以后都会更加注重申请人的财务状况,若申请过政府福利,除了申请绿卡会被拒绝以外,延期、转换身份都可能会受影响。建议申请人加强财力证明文件。

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生于湘西农村,毕业于北京大学,曾在广东省中山电视台、北京盛唐传扬公关公司、迪思传媒集团工作,2012 年底搬到美国首都华府,两个儿子都在 Arlington 出生,先后在 Falls Church 和 Vienna 买了两套房。「美国攻略」给新移民提供实用可靠的美国生活信息,很多是亲身经历。如果你经常网上购物,记得用 Rebate 返利,我几年来返了5万多美元。回国探亲请参考《回国礼物攻略》。另外,我还撰写博客「戴睿可美国日记」,偶尔在微信上发一些琐事。如果你觉得本站内容有用,欢迎点击这里订阅

16 条评论

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  1. 请问已经申请了WIC的怎么办?求支招!

    文津 3天前 # 回复
    1. @ 文津: 与你的律师讨论。按照现在的移民政策和形势,除非你非常熟悉移民法规、非常有信心自己能搞定,否则建议请律师、不要自己操作。

      Derek Yang 2天前 # 回复
  2. 目前是有条件绿卡,使用 Covered California 保险补贴会影响转正式绿卡吗?

    Lixin Zhao 2018-11-04 05:41:00 # 回复
    1. @ Lixin Zhao: 应该不会。

      Derek Yang 2018-11-04 13:45:45 # 回复
  3. 杨先生您好。感谢您这么快的回复!您的帖子太有用了!one quick question: 我本人是公民,现在在领medicaid, wic and food stamps. 而我目前在为母亲申请b2 延期,在将会最终为她申请绿卡。可是看到您的帖子后,心里有些担心。在提交b2延期的材料中,没有要求要我的信息,移民局会知道我在领这些福利,从而不批准吗?既然以后申请绿卡有麻烦,是不是应该趁现在川普政府还没有正式实施而赶紧申请呢?谢谢您!

    Leah 2018-10-03 02:29:22 # 回复
  4. 杨先生您好,一直关注您的博客,非常实用。谢谢!我现在想给我持有b1/b2签证的母亲申请延期。可是您提到很多读者说半年都没有回复,申请人都回国了。我还是想申请一下试试。。。。我想问您一下,如果届时(我母亲合法到期日是12月22日)没有收到回复,是不是必须就要回去?或者有相关部门可以上门闻讯?如果届时没有收到回复,有什么补救措施吗。谢谢您!

    LEAH 2018-09-30 00:47:44 # 回复
    1. @ LEAH: 参见这篇文章: https://gonglue.us/14973

      Derek Yang 2018-09-30 01:11:44 # 回复
  5. 麻烦问下尊敬的律师,您的答复前后自相矛盾,究竟是影响还是不影响,作为没有绿卡的外国人我们为孩子申请了Medicaid和wic?谢谢您。

    还有一点,感觉川普政府的政策是故意给人挖坑陷害别人,申请的时候政府工作人员告诉,你们虽然是外国人,可是根绝我们现在的制度和规矩,你们是可以合理合法享受这些福利的。现在好了,法规居然朔及既往,有这么不讲道理,推行这种强盗逻辑的吗?

    小小安全岛 2018-09-24 20:00:41 # 回复
    1. @ 小小安全岛: 1、以前不影响;按 Trump 政府的提议,以后会影响。没有自相矛盾。

      2、这个问题你得去问 Trump 和美国政府,问我没用。我只是告诉你 Trump 政府有了新提议,至于他们为何会有这个提议、以及提议是否合理,不是我能决定。

      Derek Yang 2018-09-24 20:39:11 # 回复
  6. 请问 我们(还没有绿卡)为宝宝(公民)申请的medicaid 我们应该对问题61答no吧?因为实际receive到benefit的是宝宝啊。这个理解对吗?

    骆驼 2018-09-07 01:44:35 # 回复
    1. @ 骆驼: 未成年子女是父母的责任。子女申请政府福利按我的理解等同于父母接受 public assistance。

      Derek Yang 2018-09-07 19:04:10 # 回复
    2. @ 骆驼: Additionally, DHS would not consider disaster relief, emergency medical assistance, benefits received by an alien’s U.S. citizen children, and Medicaid benefits received by children of U.S. citizens and potential adoptive children of U.S. citizens.

      madeofstone 2018-10-29 19:59:48 # 回复
      1. @ madeofstone: 谢谢补充!

        Derek Yang 2018-10-29 22:24:04 # 回复
  7. 如果先生是绿卡身份,长期有报税,太太暂未有绿卡,太太用孕妇白卡生小孩,会影响绿卡申请吗

    co 2018-08-01 08:12:35 # 回复
    1. @ co: 根据 USCIS 说明,白卡(Medicaid)除非用于 long-term institutional care,否则不属于 public charge。

      Derek Yang 2018-08-01 14:43:18 # 回复
    2. @ co: 2018年9月22日更新:Trump 政府提议进一步收紧合法移民限制,合法使用 public assistance 和 noncash benefit 亦会影响绿卡申请。

      Derek Yang 2018-09-24 05:40:56 # 回复