健康医药

美国常见便秘泻药和软便剂

包括缓和泻药、容积性泻药、润滑性泻药、渗透性泻药、盐类泻药、刺激性泻药。

本文编译自 Healthline,点击这里查看原文。

缓和泻药

Emollient laxative,即大便软化剂(stool softner),有效成分多库酯钠(docusate sodium、常见品牌 Colace 和 Dulcolax)或多库酯钙(docusate calcium、常见品牌 Surfak),可帮助湿润和软化大便。它们效果温和,可经常使用、预防便秘,用于治疗的效果有限,适用于缓解临时的便秘、以及轻微的长期便秘。

# 1
MIRALAX 26.9OZ (765G) 45 DOSE-EZ POUR
  • Original prescription strength: MiraLAX provides effective, predictable constipation relief
  • Unblocks your system naturally: MiraLAX (PEG 3350) works with the water in your body to hydrate,...
  • No harsh side effects: Relieve constipation without causing cramping, bloating, sudden urgency, and...
# 2
Amazon Basic Care Stool Softener Laxative, Docusate Sodium 100 mg, Softgels, 100 Count
  • STOOL SOFTENER LAXATIVE, Amazon Basic Care Docusate Sodium 100 mg, Softgels contain docusate sodium...
  • THESE SOFTGELS work gently to soften stools and generally produce a bowel movement in 12 to 72...
  • GENTLE AND PREDICTABLE constipation relief for adults and children ages 2 years and over. This...
有折扣# 3
Dulcolax Gentle Relief Stool Softener Laxative, Docusate Sodium, 100mg Liquid Gel Tablets, 100 Count
1,994 个好评
Dulcolax Gentle Relief Stool Softener Laxative, Docusate Sodium, 100mg Liquid Gel Tablets, 100 Count
  • INCLUDES: One (1) 100-count box of Dulcolax Gentle Relief Stool Softener Laxative, Gel Caps
  • GENTLE RELIEF: Dulcolax Stool Softener gently relieves constipation and irregularity
  • STOOL SOFTENER: Dulcolax Gentle Relief Stool Softener won't make you go, but it will make it easier...

容积性泻药

Bulk-forming laxative,有效成分车前子(psyllium、常见品牌 Metamucil)、甲基纤维素(methylcellulose、常见品牌 Citrucel)、聚卡波非钙(calcium polycarbophil、常见品牌 Equate),工作原理是在粪便中形成吸水的凝胶,使粪便更湿润,同时体积更大、从而刺激你的肠胃蠕动,加快排便。

# 1
Metamucil Premium Blend Fiber, 180 Servings, Psyllium Husk Fiber Powder Supplement, Sugar Free with Stevia, Natural Orange Flavor, 6 Month Supply
1,875 个好评
Metamucil Premium Blend Fiber, 180 Servings, Psyllium Husk Fiber Powder Supplement, Sugar Free with Stevia, Natural Orange Flavor, 6 Month Supply
  • PLANT BASED NATURAL PSYLLIUM FIBER. Metamucil is the only leading brand that contains plant-based...
  • NO ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS OR COLORS. Metamucil Premium Blend is sweetened with plant-based Stevia and...
  • TRUSTED BY PROFESSIONALS – Metamucil is the #1 doctor recommended fiber brand
有折扣# 2
Dulcolax Stool Softener, Liquid Gels, 25 Ct
1,832 个好评
Dulcolax Stool Softener, Liquid Gels, 25 Ct
  • CONSTIPATED? For temporary relief of occasional constipation & irregularity, try Dulcolax Laxative...
  • FAST RELIEF: Waiting for your next bowel movement? Try Dulcolax Laxative medicated suppositories for...
  • #1 RECOMMENDED: Contains the #1 doctor recommended stool softener ingredient, docusate sodium....
有折扣# 3
Metamucil Fiber, 300 Capsules, 3-in-1 Psyllium Husk Supplement, Natural Digestive Health
4,951 个好评
Metamucil Fiber, 300 Capsules, 3-in-1 Psyllium Husk Supplement, Natural Digestive Health
  • TRAPS AND REMOVES THE WASTE THAT WEIGHS YOU DOWN; Metamucil works in your digestive system to help...
  • TRUSTED BY PROFESSIONALS – Metamucil is the 1 doctor recommended fiber brand
  • SUPPORTS HEALTHY BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS; Taking Metamucil every day helps you maintain healthy blood...

此类泻药可使用更长时间,副作用的风险较小,对慢性便秘患者来说是很好的选择。然而,它们(相比其他类型的泻药)见效较为缓慢。如连续使用一周以上,应咨询医生同意。

润滑性泻药

Lubricant laxative,有效成分是矿物油(mineral oil、常见品牌 Mountain Falls),工作原理是涂抹你的粪便和肠道里,防止水分流失,同时让粪便更加顺滑。矿物油不宜长期使用,因为它可能干扰身体对脂溶性维生素的吸收,如维生素A、D、E、K。此类泻药通常用于快速缓解短期的便秘。

# 1
Kondremul Lubricant Laxative Plain (Mineral Oil) 16 Fluid Ounce Bottle
333 个好评
Kondremul Lubricant Laxative Plain (Mineral Oil) 16 Fluid Ounce Bottle
  • Relieves occasional constipation
  • A non-fattening mircroemulsion of mineral oil that promotes gentle, predictable regularity without...
  • Safe and effective brand with a minty flavor that tastes good and is sugar-free
# 2
Dulcolax Liquid Laxative, Stimulant Free Laxative for Comfortable Relief, Cherry Flavor, 12 oz.
2,002 个好评
Dulcolax Liquid Laxative, Stimulant Free Laxative for Comfortable Relief, Cherry Flavor, 12 oz.
  • INCLUDES: One (1) 12-oz. bottle of Dulcolax Stimulant Free Liquid Laxative, Cherry Flavor
  • STIMULANT-FREE LAXATIVE: Works naturally with your body to help comfortably pass hard, dry stools
  • FAST*, EFFECTIVE RELIEF: Dulcolax Liquid gives you gentle constipation relief in as little as 30...
# 3
Fleet Liquid Glycerin Suppositories for Adult Constipation, 4 Suppositories, Pack of 3
1,236 个好评
Fleet Liquid Glycerin Suppositories for Adult Constipation, 4 Suppositories, Pack of 3
  • Fleet Liquid Glycerin Suppositories provide fast, effective relief from occasional constipation
  • Easy-to-use liquid suppositories come with a mess-free applicator and lubricated gentle glide tip
  • Glycerin works by attracting water into the stool to promote a bowel movement

渗透性泻药

Hyperosmotic laxative,有效成分是聚乙二醇(polyethylene glycol、常见品牌)和甘油(glycerin、常见品牌 Fleet),工作原理是为你的肠道吸取更多水分,从而软化粪便。渗透性泻药与容积性泻药相似:见效较慢、可使用较长时间、副作用风险较小,适用于长期便秘。若连续服用一周以上,应咨询医生同意。

有折扣# 1
Dulcolax Gentle Relief Stool Softener Laxative, Docusate Sodium, 100mg Liquid Gel Tablets, 100 Count
1,994 个好评
Dulcolax Gentle Relief Stool Softener Laxative, Docusate Sodium, 100mg Liquid Gel Tablets, 100 Count
  • INCLUDES: One (1) 100-count box of Dulcolax Gentle Relief Stool Softener Laxative, Gel Caps
  • GENTLE RELIEF: Dulcolax Stool Softener gently relieves constipation and irregularity
  • STOOL SOFTENER: Dulcolax Gentle Relief Stool Softener won't make you go, but it will make it easier...
# 2
MIRALAX 26.9OZ (765G) 45 DOSE-EZ POUR
  • Original prescription strength: MiraLAX provides effective, predictable constipation relief
  • Unblocks your system naturally: MiraLAX (PEG 3350) works with the water in your body to hydrate,...
  • No harsh side effects: Relieve constipation without causing cramping, bloating, sudden urgency, and...
有折扣# 3
Colace 2-IN-1 Stool Softener & Stimulant Laxative Tablets, Gentle Constipation Relief in 6-12 Hours, 30 Count
1,663 个好评
Colace 2-IN-1 Stool Softener & Stimulant Laxative Tablets, Gentle Constipation Relief in 6-12 Hours, 30 Count
  • Acts gently
  • Ideal for smoothening bowels
  • Acts as laxative as well as stool softener

盐类泻药

Saline laxative,有效成分柠檬酸镁(magnesium citrate、常见品牌 Equate)和氢氧化镁(magnesium hydroxide、常见品牌 Philips),工作原理是将更多的水吸入肠道,从而软化粪便、刺激肠道运动。盐类泻药不宜长期使用,否则可能引起脱水和电解质失衡。

有折扣# 1
Fleet Laxative Saline Enema for Adult Constipation, 4.5 fl oz, 4 Bottles, 20164
3,185 个好评
Fleet Laxative Saline Enema for Adult Constipation, 4.5 fl oz, 4 Bottles, 20164
  • Fleet Saline Enemas provide fast, effective relief from occasional constipation
  • Soft, pre-lubricated Comfortip for easy insertion with 25% more lubrication for maximum comfort
  • Ultra pure saline works by increasing water in the intestine to soften the stool to promote a bowel...
# 2
Magnesium Citrate Oral Solution Saline Laxative Pack of 3 Flavors. One Each of Lemon, Grape and Cherry. Wipes
  • Equate Magnesium Citrate Oral Solution - Saline Laxative - 10 fl oz ( 3 plastic bottles ).
  • Cherry
  • Grape
# 3
Fleet Laxative Saline Enema, 7.8 Fl Oz (Pack of 6)
2,937 个好评
Fleet Laxative Saline Enema, 7.8 Fl Oz (Pack of 6)
  • Constipation relief in minutes (generally produces a bowel movement in 1-5 minutes)
  • Inserted rectally to treat at the site of the problem; will not upset the digestive system
  • Works by drawing water into the stool to promote a bowel movement.

大剂量服用含镁的泻药和抗酸剂(镁的摄入量超过5,000 mg/天)可能导致镁中毒(magnesium toxicity),症状包括低血压、恶心、呕吐、肠梗阻、嗜睡、肌肉无力、呼吸困难、心律不齐甚至心脏骤停等,参见《美国国家卫生研究院:镁的功效和副作用》。

刺激性泻药

Stimulant laxative,有效成分比沙可啶(bisacodyl、常见品牌即 Bisacodyl)和番泻苷(sennosides、常见品牌 Equate),工作原理是刺激肠道,使其运动更强烈。刺激性泻药不宜长期使用,可能引起脱水和电解质失衡。

有折扣# 1
Ex-Lax Maximum Strength Sennosides, 25 mg, Stimulant Laxative Tablets for Gentle overnight relief, 48 count
  • Ex-Lax is a stimulant laxative for relief from occasional constipation
  • Guaranteed to work gently and effectively overnight for dependable relief
  • Generally produces a bowel movement in 6-12 hours after consumption
有折扣# 2
Equate Stool Softener with Stimulant Laxative, 120 Tablets
840 个好评
# 3
Dulcolax Soft Chews Stimulant Free & Gentle Constipation Relief, Mixed Berry, 60 Count
  • INCLUDES: One (1) 60-count pack of individually wrapped Dulcolax Soft Chews Mixed Berry
  • FAST RELIEF: Dulcolax Soft Chews provide relief from constipation in as little as 30 minutes*
  • STIMULANT FREE: This laxative soft chew works naturally with your body for comfortable relief

便秘的治疗与饮食建议

便秘在各个年龄段和人群中都很常见。每100位成年人中,大约16人有便秘的症状。60岁及以上的成年人中,便秘的比例为33%左右。美国国家卫生研究院(NIH)在官网发布了关于便秘的专题系列文章,包括便秘的症状、原因、如何预防和缓解、非处方药、生物反馈疗法和手术等。原文在此

(more…)

继续阅读:《国家卫生研究院:便秘的治疗与饮食建议》。

宝宝便秘

我家宝宝十一个月时,开始遭遇便秘的困扰。每次拉粑粑都小脸憋得通红,紧张得又哭又叫,甚至满头大汗浑身发抖,最严重的时候四天才拉,肛门少许出血伴有脱肛。便便粗大而且头截偏硬呈瓣状。相信经历过宝宝便秘的父母,都与我感同身受,看着宝宝难受,内心非常自责,也迫切想要尽快解决便秘的问题。四个月的时间里,我尝试很多办法,最终缓解了便秘的问题,期间经历分享给大家。

继续阅读:《美国治疗宝宝便秘的亲身经验》。

美国胃药

本文编译自 WebMD,点击这里查看原文。胃胀气痛可用二甲基硅油。胃灼热可用抗酸剂。便秘可用大便软化剂或泻药。腹泻拉肚子引起痉挛抽痛,可用洛哌丁胺或次水杨酸铋。

(more…)

继续阅读:《美国常见的非处方胃药》。

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