国家卫生研究院:痤疮保健品的功效

痤疮 (acne),俗称青春痘,是一种慢性炎症性皮肤病,多发于青少年群体,青春期过后往往能自然减轻或痊愈。表现为面部粉刺、丘疹、脓疱、结节等多形性皮损。以下整理是国家卫生研究院 (NIH) 对痤疮治疗相关保健品的综述文章 [链接]

茶树油/Tea Tree Oil 和蜂毒/Bee Venom

  • 国际权威的循证医学学术组织 Cochrane 在 2015 年对 35 项 (共 3,227 名参与者) 随机对照试验的回顾研究发现,有低质量证据表明,局部涂抹茶树油和蜂毒能够减少皮肤损伤。
  • 另有 7 项研究的结论表明,局部涂抹茶树精油可以作为治疗轻度至中度痤疮的辅助方法。

茶树油原产澳州, 是无色或淡黄色液体,它是以蒸馏的方式从港木桃金娘科白千层叶中提取的纯天然植物精油,因此在植物学中被称为互叶白千层油。其中的主要成分叫做 1.8-桉叶素 (1,8–cineole),对皮肤有刺激作用,可能会引起接触性皮炎。氧化茶树油比新鲜茶树油更容易引起过敏。

茶树油是外用药,千万不可吞服。吞服可能引起中毒,症状如嗜睡、丧失方向感、出疹子和共济失调 (如运动协调不良或平衡障碍等),所以一定要放置在远离儿童的地方。

对大多数成年人来说,局部涂抹稀释过的茶树油通常被认为是安全的,偶尔也可能引发皮肤发红、瘙痒、灼热感、刺痛、结垢和皮肤干燥等副作用。

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伏牛花提取物/Barberry Extract

2012 年,对 49 名患中度至重度痤疮的青少年进行的随机对照试验显示,口服伏牛花提取物对治疗痤疮有益。伏牛花提取物耐受性良好,尚未报告明显的并发症或副作用。

草本成分的保健品并不代表绝对安全;儿童应格外小心。同时,草药不受 FDA 的监管,曾经在一些声称草本配方的外用软膏中检测出含量不低的地塞米松 (dexamethasone) 。

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生物反馈疗法/Biofeedbak

生物反馈疗法是基于行为疗法发展而来心理治疗方法,通过将病理数据反馈给患者,对患者进行认知意向训练,达到消除病理过程的治疗方法。但关于生物反馈辅助放松及认知意象的益处,目前证据较弱。

1983 年,在对 30 名痤疮患者进行了一项随机对照试验中,科学家评估了 6 周内生物反馈的功效,与对照组相比,接受生物反馈的治疗组患者的痤疮严重程度明显降低。

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