美国手工咖啡知识与器具介绍

疫情期间,很多人被迫在家远程工作,对于每天手握一杯某某克咖啡上班族而言,被困在家,如何喝上优质的咖啡?本文将主要介绍「手工咖啡」,包括咖啡豆的选购、储存、研磨;法压壶、手冲咖啡、爱乐压、摩卡壶、虹吸壶等;另一篇文章将介绍「机器篇」。速溶咖啡不在这次讨论范围内。文章不会详细介绍各类咖啡器具的使用方法,各位读者可以去 YouTube 搜索、学习。

在家远程办公的 20 条建议

咖啡豆的选购

选择咖啡豆与买耳机,音响一样,都是「玄学」,其他人喜欢的咖啡豆不一定适合你。在美国买咖啡豆一般有两种:

  • 一种是在超市、咖啡连锁店、或者网上购买大品牌咖啡豆,无论是星巴克,还是 illyLavazza,这类咖啡豆,都是大公司集体采购、集中烘焙、包装,再通过运输链分到各个超市、咖啡店,最后到客户手中,这段时间可能会太长,从而错过咖啡的最佳赏味期,使得成品质量大幅度下降。一般咖啡豆的最佳风味期是烘焙完后的一个月,密封保存一般 2 个月。
illy Arabica Selections Ethiopia Whole Bean Coffee, 100% Arabica Bean Single Origin Coffee, Light Roast with Notes of Jasmine, All-Natural, No Preservatives,...
6,748 个好评
illy Arabica Selections Ethiopia Whole Bean Coffee, 100% Arabica Bean Single Origin Coffee, Light Roast with Notes of Jasmine, All-Natural, No Preservatives,...
  • Italian Coffee
  • Ethiopia - sweet and delicate
  • Where sweet is gently kissed by bitter: quietly seductive, with fruity notes of citrus and jasmine...
Lavazza Super Crema Whole Bean Coffee Blend, Medium Espresso Roast, Authentic Italian,Produced in a nut-free facility center, Mild and creamy with notes of...
74,021 个好评
Lavazza Super Crema Whole Bean Coffee Blend, Medium Espresso Roast, Authentic Italian,Produced in a nut-free facility center, Mild and creamy with notes of...
  • One 2.2 pounds bag of Lavazza Super Crema Italian whole coffee beans
  • Mild and creamy medium espresso roast with notes of hazelnut and brown sugar
  • 60% Arabica and 40% Robusta
  • 另一种是订购精品咖啡,随着 Blue Bottle(蓝瓶子)咖啡、 Stumptown 咖啡等的流行,很多小众精品咖啡店推出了 subscription 服务,定时给用户邮寄新鲜咖啡,用户可以在他们网站上回答几个简单问题,来找到适合自己口味的咖啡。比如 Blue BottleDrink Trade 。当然,你如果不想 subscribe 的话,也可以一次性购买。

咖啡豆的储存

将咖啡豆买回家后,建议密封保存。我个人使用的是 OXO 的密封盒,除了存放咖啡,不同尺寸的密封盒还可以放意大利面、早餐麦片,还有香菇、木耳等干货。

美国哪里买做菜和煲汤用的各种干货?

Coffee Gator Stainless Steel Coffee Grounds and Beans Container Canister with Date-Tracker, CO2-Release Valve and Measuring Scoop, Large, Gray
11,171 个好评
Coffee Gator Stainless Steel Coffee Grounds and Beans Container Canister with Date-Tracker, CO2-Release Valve and Measuring Scoop, Large, Gray
  • Fresher than fresh. You pay for prime quality ground and whole beans, so it makes sense to take care...
  • Protection from flavor-destroyers. Coffee naturally emits harmful co2 which must be vented away. Our...
  • Track freshness for a dream brew for you and your guests. Log purchase or expiry date with the...
Stainless Steel Coffee Container Airtight with Built-in CO2 Gas Vent Valve and Date Tracking Wheel for Tea, Sugar and Cereal, 16 oz By Chef's Star
191 个好评
Stainless Steel Coffee Container Airtight with Built-in CO2 Gas Vent Valve and Date Tracking Wheel for Tea, Sugar and Cereal, 16 oz By Chef's Star
  • A dose of freshness anytime, anywhere; Our air-tight stainless steel canister, coffee storage...
  • Premium material and high performance; We guarantee that our canisters are made with rust-resistant,...
  • Enhanced aesthetic appeal; Whether it be for kitchen storage or a coffee bar, our coffee vault and...
OXO Good Grips 5-Piece POP Container Set
3,812 个好评
OXO Good Grips 5-Piece POP Container Set
  • OXO Good Grips 5-Piece POP Container Set is airtight, stackable, space-efficient and now dishwasher...
  • Set includes: One (1) 2.1 Qt Container, one (1) 1.5 Qt Container, two (2) 0.9 Qt Containers, and one...
  • Push the button to engage the airtight seal. The button doubles as a handle for the lid

咖啡豆的研磨

研磨分为电动和手动。电动磨豆机有预设杯数,可设定咖啡粉粗细,方便用户使用。

30% off
Bodum Bistro Burr Coffee Grinder, 1 EA, Black
6,862 个好评
Bodum Bistro Burr Coffee Grinder, 1 EA, Black
  • The Bistro Burr Grinder consistently crushes beans between stainless steel conical burrs. This...
  • Push button, pre-set timer allows users to grind the exact amount of coffee needed, keeping beans...
  • 12 Adjustable grind settings allow users to go from Espresso to French Press with ease.
43% off
Breville Smart Grinder Pro Coffee Bean Grinder, Brushed Stainless Steel, BCG820BSS
4,770 个好评
Breville Smart Grinder Pro Coffee Bean Grinder, Brushed Stainless Steel, BCG820BSS
  • Stainless steel conical burrs designed to minimize grinding heat and protect the essential oils in...
  • 60 precise grind settings from the finest Espresso to the coarsest French Press Grind. Voltage: 110...
  • Precision Electronic Timer allows users to adjust grind time in 0.2 second increments and consistent...

手动磨豆机最大的好处是便宜。有些咖啡爱好者可能还会享受手动磨豆的过程。

Manual Coffee Grinder, Hand coffee grinder mill with Ceramic Burrs, Two Clear Glass Jars 5.5 oz Each, Stainless Steel Handle, Suitable for Camping and Home Use
816 个好评
Manual Coffee Grinder, Hand coffee grinder mill with Ceramic Burrs, Two Clear Glass Jars 5.5 oz Each, Stainless Steel Handle, Suitable for Camping and Home Use
  • FINE OR COARSE GROUND COFFEE SETTING---With adjustable grind control, the manual coffee grinder can...
  • TWO 5.5 oz CLEAR GLASS JARS---The manual coffee grinder comes with two 5.5 oz clear glass jars,...
  • CONSISTENT GRINDS---- Fresh grinds should be consistent in texture and uniform in size for the...

如果预算有限,可以凑合使用以下这款刀片磨豆机。此类机器并非「研磨」,而是使用刀片打(砍)碎,出来的粉经常会不均匀,并且很难控制粗细。但它的好处是:便宜,并且除了磨(砍)豆外,还可以处理香料,当然每次用完记得清理干净,避免串味。

19% off
Mr. Coffee 12 Cup Electric Coffee Grinder with Multi Settings, Black, 3 Speed - IDS77
  • Automatic coffee and spice grinder with variable settings: Coarse, Medium, or Fine.Product...
  • Chamber Maid Cleaning System sweeps chamber walls to reduce mess and waste
  • Precisely grind for the amount of coffee you are brewing: From 4 to 12 cups; Cord length: 25 inches

法压壶 French Press

法压壶应该是最简单、最入门的咖啡制作工具,价格亲民。热水与研磨较粗的咖啡粉浸泡一段时间后,将带有金属过滤网的压杆压下、把咖啡粉与咖啡分离,然后倒出,咖啡就制作完成了。法压壶适合咖啡新手,只要控制好水温、咖啡粉粗细、浸泡时间,咖啡口感会比较一致。不用咖啡滤纸,比较好清洁,不过如果咖啡粉太细,会导致金属网无法完全隔离咖啡渣,制作出的咖啡有残渣。

30% off
Bodum Travel Press, Stainless Steel Travel Coffee and Tea Press, 15 Ounce, .45 Liter, Black,1 Count (Pack of 1)
5,439 个好评
Bodum Travel Press, Stainless Steel Travel Coffee and Tea Press, 15 Ounce, .45 Liter, Black,1 Count (Pack of 1)
  • Travel Coffee maker: brew Coffee or tea on the go and drink from same container when ready; enjoy...
  • Quick and easy: Simply add coarsely ground Coffee, hot water and seal the lid for a delicious,...
  • Stainless steel: made of vacuum-sealed, double-wall construction, this stainless steel travel mug...

建议购买杯体是金属或者厚玻璃的法压壶,我之前买过一个塑料的法压旅行杯,但加入热水会导致杯子受热不均匀,有碎裂的危险。法压壶除了制作热咖啡、泡茶外,夏天还可以制作冷萃咖啡和冰水果茶。

Bodum Brazil French Press Coffee and Tea Maker, 12 oz, Black
17,396 个好评
Bodum Brazil French Press Coffee and Tea Maker, 12 oz, Black
  • Add Coarsely Grounded Coffee. Add Hot Water. Wait 4 Minutes. Plunge.
  • Environmentally friendly: No paper filters or plastic capsules required.
  • Base and handle made of BPA-free polypropylene. Carafe made of German Heat-Resistant Borosilicate...

手冲咖啡 Pour Over 、 Chemex 壶、挂耳

将这三种放在一起讨论,是因为他们萃取咖啡的原理基本相同,通过滴滤式萃取,利用重力,让热水流过咖啡粉,萃取出咖啡中的可溶性物质。不同的咖啡量、水温、萃取/焖煮时间,用户能得到截然不同的咖啡,比较适合中阶以上玩家。需要花时间练习,了解不同咖啡豆的特点来调整萃取,对技巧要求更高。对于很多人来说,使用手冲方式进行萃取咖啡更有装 B 感仪式感。下面介绍几款经典器具。

Hario V60 滴滤杯

日本出品的经典手冲咖啡器具,有金属、玻璃、塑料、陶瓷等不同材质,其杯壁夹角为 60º,配合其专利设计的螺旋导流,使咖啡粉可以充分和热水接触,获得更好萃取。唯一的缺点是,用户需要购买相应尺寸的滤纸,不太环保。

11% off
Hario V60 Ceramic Coffee Dripper Pour Over Cone Coffee Maker Size 02, White
9,726 个好评
Hario V60 Ceramic Coffee Dripper Pour Over Cone Coffee Maker Size 02, White
  • Classic Ceramic Dripper: Specially designed to produce an evenly brewed cup of coffee. Durable...
  • Pour Over Excellence: Specialty cone shape and unique spiral ridges allow for deeper layering of the...
  • Pour Control: The V60 features a single large hole, improving pour flow and providing users the...
38% off
Hario V60 Paper Coffee Filters Single Use Pour Over Cone Filters Size 02, Natural, 100 count
33,344 个好评
Hario V60 Paper Coffee Filters Single Use Pour Over Cone Filters Size 02, Natural, 100 count
  • Hario V60 cone shaped disposable paper filters for pour over drippers. Each filter is single-use,...
  • Our pour over cone coffee filters produce clean, flavorful, sediment-free coffee
  • Contains 100 disposable natural size 02 paper filters

Chemex 壶,与其他滴滤杯类似,不过造型更别致。

Chemex Pour-Over Glass Coffeemaker - Classic Series - 8-Cup - Exclusive Packaging
7,296 个好评
Chemex Pour-Over Glass Coffeemaker - Classic Series - 8-Cup - Exclusive Packaging
  • CHEMEX - simple, easy to use with timeless, elegant design
  • All CHEMEX Coffeemakers are made of the highest quality, non-porous Borosilicate glass which will...
  • The patented CHEMEX pour-over design allows coffee to be covered and refrigerated for reheating...

挂耳

我会在办公室使用,配合我每周带去的咖啡粉,公司提供的胶囊咖啡机有时候略显单调,会手冲一杯挂耳咖啡调剂一下。

100 Pack Portable Single Serve Food Grade Disposable Hanging Ear Drip Filter Bag, Coffee Filter Bag Perfect for Travel, Camping, Home, Office
105 个好评
100 Pack Portable Single Serve Food Grade Disposable Hanging Ear Drip Filter Bag, Coffee Filter Bag Perfect for Travel, Camping, Home, Office
  • Food grade Safe : Material Imported from Japan is consist of PP and pet. The coffee filters bags are...
  • Quick and Simple: Unique hanging ear hook design allows for quick and easy POUR OVER BREWING METHOD...
  • Perfect for any setting such as at home, camping, traveling, or in the office.

细嘴壶

作为手冲咖啡的附属加成器具,不是一定需要,不过有的话,可以使萃取的咖啡质量更上一层楼。吸嘴壶主要是帮助更好地控制与稳定水流速,一般分燃气加热与电子式。最好购买配有温度计的,控制热水温度,价格区间很大,大家量力而行。

Gooseneck Tea Kettle Stovetop (1.2L- 40fl oz) with Thermometer for Pour Over Coffee Brewing - 304 Stainless Steel-Tripple Layer Induction Base Chemex Kettle -...
179 个好评
Gooseneck Tea Kettle Stovetop (1.2L- 40fl oz) with Thermometer for Pour Over Coffee Brewing - 304 Stainless Steel-Tripple Layer Induction Base Chemex Kettle -...
  • Brew Like A Barista Gourmet Coffee: Your taste-buds will think you're at a coffee shop using a...
  • Essence Of Flavour: A gooseneck pour spout draws out the natural flavors and nuances from every...
  • Made To Last: Our stainless steel kettles has a reinforced spout and thermal, insulated handle...
Brewello Gooseneck Kettle - Pour-Over Coffee Kettle with Built-in Thermometer and Triple-Layer Base (40-Ounce/1.2Liter) Stainless Steel Kettle for Baristas and...
107 个好评
Brewello Gooseneck Kettle - Pour-Over Coffee Kettle with Built-in Thermometer and Triple-Layer Base (40-Ounce/1.2Liter) Stainless Steel Kettle for Baristas and...
  • BETTER TASTING COFFEE; If you want to make a great cup of coffee or tea at home; having the right...
  • ACCURATE THERMOMETER; Burnt or under extracted coffee just doesn't taste nice; This specialty kettle...
  • MADE OF RUST FREE STEEL; Brewello focuses on the technical aspect of products to deliver an...
Fellow Stagg EKG Electric Gooseneck Kettle - Pour-Over Coffee and Tea Kettle - Stainless Steel Kettle Water Boiler - Quick Heating Electric Kettles for Boiling...
4,341 个好评
Fellow Stagg EKG Electric Gooseneck Kettle - Pour-Over Coffee and Tea Kettle - Stainless Steel Kettle Water Boiler - Quick Heating Electric Kettles for Boiling...
  • STAGG EKG ELECTRIC KETTLE: Simple aesthetic meets powerful design. A gooseneck kettle that pours as...
  • PRECISION POUR: Stagg EKG's sleek pointed spout is designed for a powerful but precise stream for...
  • TEMPERATURE MATTERS: Speed up your brewing process with Stagg EKG and its 1200-watt quick-heating...

电子秤

大家也可以用原来厨房料理的电子秤,或者购买制作咖啡专用的,带有计时功能的。

34% off
Ozeri Pronto Digital Multifunction Kitchen and Food Scale, Original
84,725 个好评
Ozeri Pronto Digital Multifunction Kitchen and Food Scale, Original
  • Accurate, elegant, easy-to-use digital kitchen scale for your largest and smallest cooking projects...
  • Unit Button instantly converts between 6 units of measurements (g, lbs, lbs:oz, oz, ml, kg) and...
  • Precision Tare Button calculates the net weight of your ingredients by automatically subtracting the...
20% off
Hario V60 Drip Coffee Scale and Timer, Black
5,276 个好评
Hario V60 Drip Coffee Scale and Timer, Black
  • Hario V60 drip coffee scale measures in 0. 1 gram increments for highest precision
  • Includes a drip timer for perfect bloom times and pours each time
  • Integrated timer for complete and total control of your coffee brewing process

爱乐压 Aeropress

美国 Aerobie 公司在 2006 年推出的一种咖啡制作器具,携带方便,价格亲民。 Aeropress 使用浸泡 + 压力萃取。跟法压壶相比,虽然两个名字里面都有「压」(press),但爱乐压利用其针筒式设计,让空气进行压缩,我觉得爱乐压萃取的咖啡口感更丰富。

Aeropress Original Coffee and Espresso Maker, Barista Level Portable Coffee Maker with Chamber, Plunger, and Filters, Quick Coffee and Espresso Maker, Made in...
17,622 个好评
Aeropress Original Coffee and Espresso Maker, Barista Level Portable Coffee Maker with Chamber, Plunger, and Filters, Quick Coffee and Espresso Maker, Made in...
  • Professional-Grade Coffee Right at Home: A household name amongst baristas and coffee enthusiasts...
  • Goodbye, French Press: No more bitterness or grit. The rapid brewing of the AeroPress Original...
  • Travel with Your Coffee Gear: The AeroPress Original is lightweight, compact, portable, and durable....

爱乐压附带的是滤纸,用户可以选择换成金属网,如果感觉普通的滤纸无法达到更高的压力,获得更好的 espresso(更多的咖啡油脂 crema),可以选择购买 Fellow Prismo Aeropress 。

Fellow Prismo Attachment for AeroPress Coffee Maker - Enhance Your Manual Coffee Maker to Brew Espresso-Style and No-Drip Immersion Coffees, Reusable Metal...
3,467 个好评
Fellow Prismo Attachment for AeroPress Coffee Maker - Enhance Your Manual Coffee Maker to Brew Espresso-Style and No-Drip Immersion Coffees, Reusable Metal...
  • PRISMO AEROPRESS COFFEE MAKER ATTACHMENT - Prismo is a pressure actuated valve designed to attach to...
  • PULLING A SHOT WITHOUT AN ESPRESSO MACHINE - Prismo’s special valve stays sealed until you press...
  • DITCH THE FLIP - Brew full-immersion coffees without inverting your AeroPress; Store leak-free in...

摩卡壶 Moka Pot

请注意,这里的「摩卡」并非大家在咖啡店点的摩卡花式咖啡。摩卡壶做出来的接近意式浓缩咖啡 espresso 。摩卡壶分为上下两段,下方装水和咖啡粉,上端是最后萃取好的咖啡液。正如下方原理图,下方水被加热后形成水蒸气产生压力,将水压入上方的咖啡粉,并流入上端。

摩卡壶原理图(图片来自知乎

蒸汽产生的压力一般在 1.5-3.0 个大气压,无法和意式咖啡机轻松可以达到 9 个大气压相比;好的意式咖啡机可以达到 15 bar 。不过,摩卡壶价格亲民,深受老百姓喜爱。用户需要花时间来学习水量、水温和咖啡粉比例,避免萃取过度,产生苦味。刚上手,每一次出品的稳定性不佳。

Bialetti Express Moka Pot, 6 -Cup, Aluminum Silver
20,517 个好评
Bialetti Express Moka Pot, 6 -Cup, Aluminum Silver
  • Made in Italy: it is Made in Italy and its quality is enhanced by the patented safety valve which...
  • How to prepare the coffee: fill the boiler up to the safety valve, fill the filter up with ground...
  • One size for each need: Moka Express sizes are measured in Espresso Cups, coffee can be enjoyed in...

购买时请关注评价好、知名品牌的摩卡壶,不要贪图便宜,因为很多质量差的摩卡壶,上下两部分结构不密封、工艺不过关,使用时会有「炸壶」的风险。煮咖啡时务必待在燃气灶旁,因为摩卡壶制作速度较快,一般在 3-5 分钟就完成了,避免干烧,产生不必要的危险。

虹吸壶 Vacuum / Siphon Coffee Maker

虹吸壶像实验室里面的实验器材,制作咖啡时的装 B 感观赏性力压以上各类咖啡器具。下方一般是工业酒精加热,现在也有电子加热炉。热水上升、萃取放在上面的咖啡粉,通过浸泡后,移除下方加热源,下方压力下降,上方的咖啡液因为重力流入下方的壶中,与咖啡残渣分离。虹吸壶大部分是由玻璃制成,不易储藏,当然如果放入玻璃柜当一个艺术品摆件,也不是不可以。使用虹吸壶必须时刻待在旁边,掌控下方温度,制作完咖啡后清洗比较麻烦。

虹吸壶原理(图:kknews.cc
5 Cup Japanese Siphon Coffee Maker,Syphon Coffee Maker Set , High Temperature Resistant Glass Not Breakable, Comes With 10 Sheets Of Coffee Filter Cloths
186 个好评
5 Cup Japanese Siphon Coffee Maker,Syphon Coffee Maker Set , High Temperature Resistant Glass Not Breakable, Comes With 10 Sheets Of Coffee Filter Cloths
  • Warm reminder: Because the product is a glass product, the transportation distance is very long, and...
  • Material: Made of quality heat resistant glass and polypropylene made in other parts. Easy and...
  • Easy to use: this syphon coffee maker with its alcohol burner continuously provides consistent heat...
Yama Siphon 8 Cup/32oz/950ml Stove Top Coffee Maker
975 个好评
Yama Siphon 8 Cup/32oz/950ml Stove Top Coffee Maker
  • YAMA Siphon brewed coffee produces cleaner, richer, and smoother cup of coffee by maximizing the...
  • Large 8 cup capacity is perfect for serving the whole family
  • Vacuum technology seals in the aroma and flavors delivering on the true profile of your coffee
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