去年一段时间以来，F2A 排期 current，此后网上出现了一种说法：「immediate relatives 和职业移民可 concurrent filing, F2A 等家庭移民不可以」。这应该是错误的说法，可能是源自移民局官网的一处误导信息。
什么是 Concurrent Filing
- 提交 I-130 或 I-140 petition
- Petition 批准之后，提交 I-485 调整身份
家庭移民和 EB-1、EB-2、EB-3 职业移民，如果排期已到、有绿卡名额（包括 current、或者你的 PD 早于排期）、并且申请人在美国有合法身份（参见《美国移民和调整身份的常见禁令》），则申请人可以同时提交 petition 和 I-485 调整身份，这种处理方式称为 "concurrent filing"。
哪些移民类别可以 Concurrent Filing？
Who can file concurrently?
We allow concurrent filing for:
- Immediate relatives of U.S. citizens living in the United States;
- Most employment-based applicants and their eligible family members when a visa number is immediately available;
- Special Immigrant Juveniles if an EB-4 visa number is immediately available and we have jurisdiction over the application to adjust status;
- Self-petitioning battered spouse or child if:
- The abusive spouse or parent is a U.S. citizen; or
- If an immigrant visa number is immediately available;
- Certain members of the armed forces applying for a special immigrant visa under Section101(a)(27)(K) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA); and
- Special Immigrant International Organization Employees or family members.
按照这个页面，只有 immediate relatives、职业移民（及其附属申请人）、特殊青少年移民、遭受家暴的公民子女或配偶等，可以申请 concurrent filing; 普通家庭移民不在此列。这个限制与我此前的印象不符，做了一番搜索之后，没找到其他任何地方有「非 immediate relative 家庭移民不可 concurrent filing」的说法；相反，不但有多个移民律师在回答问题时明确说过，F2A 在表 A current 时可以 concurrent filing, 并且移民局官网其他几处貌似也是这个意思。比如说：
- 04/29/2020 更新的 "Visa Availability and Priority Dates" -> "Concurrent Filing"，先说了 immediate relatives, 然后明确说 "family-sponsored" "preference category" 在有名额时可以 concurrently filing, 而 "family-sponsored" "preference category" 指的就是 F-1/F-2A/F-2B 等家庭移民。
- 2021/08/12 更新的移民局政策手册对 concurrent filing 的说明则是 "Family-based immigrants, including immediate relatives, and widow(er)s of a U.S. citizen"。
随后，Telegram 上一位朋友找到了移民法原文：8 CFR § 245.2 - Application (a)(2)(B)：
If, at the time of filing, approval of a visa petition filed for classification under section 201(b)(2)(A)(i), section 203(a) or section 203(b)(1), (2) or (3) of the Act would make a visa immediately available to the alien beneficiary, the alien beneficiary's adjustment application will be considered properly filed whether submitted concurrently with or subsequent to the visa petition, provided that it meets the filing requirements contained in parts 103 and 245. For any other classification, the alien beneficiary may file the adjustment application only after the Service has approved the visa petition.
也就是说，以下三类申请，如果有绿卡名额，申请人可（1）同时提交 petition + I-485，或（2）在 petition 提交之后提交 I-485 调整身份：
- Section 201(b)(2)(A)(i) 类别：即 Immediate relatives。
- Section 203(a) 类别：(a) Preference allocation for family-sponsored immigrants.[...] (1) Unmarried sons and daughters of citizens.[...] (2) Spouses and unmarried sons and unmarried daughters of permanent resident aliens.[...](3) Married sons and married daughters of citizens[...] (4) Brothers and sisters of citizens.[...] 即 F1、F2A/B、F3、F4 四种 family based preference 类别。
- Section 203(b)(1), (2) 和 (3) 类别：即职业移民 EB1、EB2 和 EB3；不含 EB4、EB5。
F2A 以前很长一段时间都有排期，直到去年以来才变成 current, 可能也是这个时候才出现了「F2A 是否能 concurrent filing」的疑问，比如未名上的这个讨论，我怀疑这种困惑的根源就是上面列举的 USCIS 页面，里面的信息应该是错的（此前我们在讨论 HR1044 法案的时候还指出过移民局给国会的一份数据有错/误导）。移民法很明确说了，Immediate Relatives、F1、F2A/B、F3、F4 以及 EB1、EB2、EB3 都可以 concurrent filing；至于 EB4 和 EB5, 则必须等到 petition 获批之后，方可提交 I-485 调整身份，不可 concurrent filing。
只有在 "a visa immediately available" 时方可 concurrent filing, 这是指表A还是表B呢？USCIS 在 "Visa Availability and Priority Dates" -> "Concurrent Filing" 里解读如下：
In certain instances, you can file your Form I-485 together, or "concurrently," with the underlying Form I-130 or Form I-140 immigrant petition. You may concurrently file your Form I-485 only when approval of the underlying immigrant petition would make a visa immediately available to you. If you are an immediate relative, you can always concurrently file your Form I-485 application with the underlying Form I-130.
If you are seeking adjustment of status under a family-sponsored or employment-based preference category, you may concurrently file your Form I-485 with Form I-130 or Form I-140 only if:
- Your priority date is earlier than the cut-off date listed in the "Application Final Action Dates" chart in the monthly Visa Bulletin for your preference category and country of chargeability;
- The Visa Bulletin chart indicates "C" instead of a specific cut-off date, meaning that your preference category and country of chargeability is current and that you may file Form I-485 regardless of the priority date; or
- When permitted by USCIS (as described above in "Acceptance of Adjustment Status Applications"), your priority date is earlier than the cut-off date listed in the "Dates for Filing Applications" chart for your preference category and country of chargeability.
I-130 / I-140 Pending、可以提交 I-485 concurrent filing 吗？
简单说：可以。上文引用的移民法原文里其实已经列举了这种情形：（1）同时提交 petition 和 485；（2）在提交 petition 之后再提交 485。8 CFR § 245.2 - Application (a)(2)(C) 说得更清楚：
(C) A visa petition and an adjustment application are concurrently filed only if:
- (1) The visa petitioner and adjustment applicant each file their respective form at the same time, bundled together within a single mailer or delivery packet, with the proper filing fees on the same day and at the same Service office, or;
- (2) the visa petitioner filed the visa petition, for which a visa number has become immediately available, on, before or after July 31, 2002, and the adjustment applicant files the adjustment application, together with the proper filing fee and a copy of the Form I-797, Notice of Action, establishing the receipt and acceptance by the Service of the underlying Form I-140 visa petition, at the same Service office at which the visa petitioner filed the visa petition, or;
- (3) The visa petitioner filed the visa petition, for which a visa number has become immediately available, on, before, or after July 31, 2002, and the adjustment applicant files the adjustment application, together with proof of payment of the filing fee with the Service and a copy of the Form I-797 Notice of Action establishing the receipt and acceptance by the Service of the underlying Form I-140 visa petition, with the Immigration Court or the Board of Immigration Appeals when jurisdiction lies under paragraph (a)(1) of this section.
答：可以。如果排期已到，申请人在美国境内且有合法身份，所有家庭移民、以及 EB1、EB2、EB3 三类职业移民都可以选择 concurrent filing。
答：所有家庭移民和 EB1、EB2、EB3 都可以。这是 concurrent filing 的一种。
答：不可以。Concurrent filing 仅限于美国境内调整身份；境外领馆处理不能 concurrent filing。