美国常见益生菌的类型与功效

益生菌,英文 Probiotic, 是活的细菌,是被认为有益于身体健康的「好」细菌。发酵食品中,如酸奶、奶酪和泡菜中都含有益生菌。

根据哈佛医学院的研究,人的肠道中有大约100万亿的微生物,疾病或压力可能改变肠道内的细菌平衡,导致消化等健康问题[]。而益生菌可以通过改变肠道细菌的成分和代谢活动来发挥作用,好细菌占据坏细菌的位置,可以预防因有害细菌繁殖而导致的感染和炎症。例如,人体内酵母过多会引发酵母感染,但均衡的肠道生物群系统能使酵母处于较低水平,抑制感染的发生。

针对益生菌健康益处的研究大多都显现出积极结果,但关于益生菌治疗特定疾病的功效,科学还没有定论。国立卫生研究院提示说,益生菌的现实应用可能已经夸大了局限性的研究结果。2001年率领联合国/世界卫生组织专家小组给出益生菌定义的科学家 Gregor Reid 博士,不久前也在《Frontiers in Microbiology》杂志上发表文章,重新界定并进一步阐明益生菌的定义[]

常见的益生菌种类

双歧杆菌和乳酸杆菌是最常见的两种益生菌。

  • 双歧杆菌(Bifidobacteria):常用于食品和保健品。作用有:支持免疫系统、限制肠道内有害细菌的繁殖以及帮助将乳糖分解成身体可以使用的营养素。
  • 乳酸杆菌(Lactobacillus): 可以产生分解乳糖的酶和乳酸,后者有助于控制有害细菌数量,增加身体对矿物质的吸收。乳酸杆菌天然存在于口腔、小肠和阴道内。

益生菌菌株是物种的遗传亚型,以下是在食品和保健品标签上常见的6种益生菌菌株。前面的 B 或 L 分别代表双歧杆菌和乳酸杆菌。

  • B. animalis:有助于促进消化和对抗食源性细菌,也被认为可以增强免疫系统。
  • B. breve:存在于消化道和阴道内,可以抵抗容易引起感染的细菌或酵母菌,帮助身体吸收营养和分解植物纤维,使食物更易消化。
  • B. lactis(乳酸乳球菌):来自未经任何处理的生牛奶。
  • B. longum:存在于胃肠道内,有助于分解碳水化合物,也可以作为抗氧化剂。
  • L. acidophilus(嗜酸乳杆菌):存在于小肠和阴道内。助消化,帮助抑制阴道细菌。酸奶和发酵豆制品中也会添加这种成分。
  • L. reuteri(罗伊氏乳杆菌):存在于肠道和口腔中。研究表明它能够减少引起蛀牙的口腔细菌。

益生菌的功效

益生菌最广为人知的作用是助消化,特定类型的益生菌也会刺激人体免疫系统发挥作用。例如,儿童1型糖尿病的发展可能与肠道细菌生物群落不足导致的炎症有关[]

根据美国胃肠病学会(American College of Gastroenterology),益生菌的功效包括[]

  • 助消化
  • 缓解腹泻
  • 预防/缓解阴道感染
  • 预防自身免疫性疾病
  • 预防/缓解皮肤疾病
  • 抵御泌尿系统感染

益生菌的服用剂量

益生菌在给药时必须是活菌且达到一定数量才有用。

益生菌通常以菌落形成单位(Colony-Forming Units,CFU)测量。多数研究发现,较高剂量效果更好[]。「较高剂量」指儿童每日服用益生菌超过50亿 CFU,成人超过100亿 CFU。目前没有发现服用较高剂量的益生菌是不安全的。但需要留意的是,服用益生菌补充剂对病情严重或免疫系统受损的人来说可能是危险的,服用前请确保自己没有这类健康问题,并咨询医生。

不同益生菌菌株的起效剂量也不同,一些需要10-20亿 CFU 可以起作用,而其他一些可能超过200亿 CFU 才能达到预期效果。服用前需要咨询医生。

不同品牌益生菌产品或食物中包含的 CFU 不同,产品标签需要明确标注。建议购买前仔细阅读产品标签,以确保自己能够获得足够剂量的益生菌。

如何读懂美国保健品的成分标签

以康萃乐 Culturelle 益生菌为例,产品使用鼠李糖乳杆菌(Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG),每片含100亿 CFU 的 LGG 。 

然而,目前并没有针对不同益生菌菌株的每日建议摄入量。根据《美国家庭医生》的建议:

益生菌菌株推荐每日剂量
鼠李糖乳杆菌 LGG100亿 CFU
乳酸杆菌/双歧杆菌1~350亿 CFU 按需
布拉氏酵母菌
(Saccharomyces boulardii)
250~500 mg

美国常见的益生菌补充剂

针对特定症状,某些益生菌菌株的效果可能更好。Healthline 提供了下列建议。

便秘 Constipation

慢性便秘在卧床不起的老年人和成人中最常见,但儿童也有发生。益生菌越来越多地被作为治疗便秘的替代疗法。缓解便秘症状的益生菌推荐如下。

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Garden of Life RAW Probiotics Colon Care, 30 Vegetarian Capsules
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Morning PROBIOTIC Supplement 5 Billion for Fast Constipation & IBS Relief - Kids, Women & Men PROBIOTICS - 60 Capsules No Gallbladder Formula - Also Helps...
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Probiotics for Women & Men - 900 Billion CFU Probiotics Digestive Health - 62% More Stable Probiotic Supplement for Gut Health Support - USA Made Natural...
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  • FULL BENEFITS WITH UNI-BACT CF15: Most probiotics use Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, which are...
  • 62% LONGER STABILITY: CFUs decline by 5% per month when probiotics are poorly packed in transparent...

腹泻

回顾研究证明,益生菌可以降低不同原因引起的腹泻34%。研究发现益生菌可以减少与食物中毒和肠胃炎相关的腹泻次数[]。有效菌株包括鼠李糖乳杆菌 LGG 、嗜酸乳杆菌和保加利亚乳杆菌( Lactobacillus bulgaricus)[]

使用抗生素也可能引起腹泻,因为当抗生素杀死有害细菌时,有益细菌也会被破坏,细菌平衡被打破,引起炎症和腹泻。儿童和成人研究表明,服用益生菌可以减少与抗生素有关的腹泻[]。缓解腹泻的益生菌推荐如下。

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Florastor Daily Probiotic Supplement for Women and Men, Proven to Support Digestive Health, Saccharomyces Boulardii CNCM I-745 (50 Capsules)
  • Digestive and Immune Support: Florastor helps increase the natural flora in your digestive tract and...
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High Strength L Glutathione Supplement - Liver Support Amino Acid Nutritional Supplement with L-Glutathione Milk Thistle Extract and Alpha Lipoic Acid
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High Strength L Glutathione Supplement - Liver Support Amino Acid Nutritional Supplement with L-Glutathione Milk Thistle Extract and Alpha Lipoic Acid
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肠易激综合征 IBS

有些肠易激综合征(irritable bowel syndrome,IBS)患者会经历持续性便秘,有些人的症状则是腹泻,有些人还会腹痛、腹胀、恶心等,因人而异。益生菌常用来帮助缓解 IBS 症状,但由于 IBS 症状多样,研究人员还无法确定哪种益生菌最有效[]

在一项针对便秘症状的 IBS 患者的研究发现, 酿酒酵母(S. cerevisiae)对改善便秘有效,但对腹痛没有作用[]。而在另一项针对腹泻症状的 IBS 患者的研究发现,VSL#3 益生菌补充剂对改善腹胀有效,对其他症状则没有作用[]

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减肥

一些益生菌菌株可以降低肠道吸收的脂肪和卡路里的总量,而肠道细菌平衡可能有助于减重、尤其是减少腹部脂肪[]。研究发现对减肥有效的益生菌包括:加氏乳杆菌(Lactobacillus gasseri),鼠李糖乳杆菌 LGG,以及鼠李糖乳杆菌和乳双歧杆菌(Bifidobacterium lactis)的组合[]

在一项研究中,连续服用加氏乳杆菌12周的肥胖男性,体重和体脂显著减少,腹部脂肪减少8.5%[]。在另一项研究中,服用鼠李糖乳杆菌 LGG 3周的肥胖女性,体重减轻是服用安慰剂的女性的两倍。并且,服用鼠李糖乳杆菌 LGG 女性能够持续减重,而服用安慰剂的女性的体重会容易反弹[]

推荐辅助减肥的益生菌推荐如下。

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Probiotics for Women and Men - Garden of Life Raw Probiotics Ultimate Care 100 Billion CFU Probiotic Supplement, Daily Probiotic for Adults with Digestive...
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支持大脑健康

研究发现,益生菌还有助于改善焦虑、抑郁、自闭症、强迫症和改善记忆力[]。一项研究让喉癌患者在术前2周服用益生菌,之后发现他们血液中的应激激素水平降低,焦虑减轻48%[]。在另一项对重度抑郁症患者的研究中,患者连续8周服用嗜酸乳杆菌、干酪乳杆菌和双歧杆菌,之后发现抑郁症症状显著减轻。

推荐用于脑健康的益生菌推荐如下。

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Garden of Life Dr. Formulated Probiotics Mood+ Acidophilus Probiotic Supplement - Promotes Emotional Well-Being, Relaxation and Digestive Balance - Ashwagandha...
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  • STRESS MANAGEMENT AND PREBIOTICS FOR WOMEN AND MEN: Our prebiotic supplement with Organic Acacia and...
Life Extension Florassist Mood, 30 Capsules
  • Promotes relaxation
  • Improves mood
  • Research has shown connection between “gut-brain axis” and nervous system
Hyperbiotics Pro-15 Advanced Strength Probiotic | Probiotics for Women Men Adults | Digestive Health Immune Support Supplement | Shelf Stable Time Release 15x...
1,812 个好评
Hyperbiotics Pro-15 Advanced Strength Probiotic | Probiotics for Women Men Adults | Digestive Health Immune Support Supplement | Shelf Stable Time Release 15x...
  • GET 15 TIMES MORE SURVIVABILITY THAN WITH VEGGIE CAPSULES. With a patented delivery method, the...
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改善心脏健康

益生菌有助于降低患心脏病的风险。对14项研究的分析发现,益生菌能降低「坏」胆固醇 LDL-C 和甘油三酯(TG),同时略微增加「好」胆固醇 HDL-C[]。益生菌还可以帮助降低血压。在对9项对照研究的综述中发现,连续8周以上、每天服用超过100亿 CFU 益生菌,会让高血压患者的血压值下降[]

有助于心脏健康的益生菌推荐如下。

30% off
Garden of Life Dr. Formulated Probiotics Mood+ Acidophilus Probiotic Supplement - Promotes Emotional Well-Being, Relaxation and Digestive Balance - Ashwagandha...
  • DOCTOR FORMULATED PROBIOTICS FOR EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING AND RELAXATION: Mood Probiotic provides 50...
  • DIGESTION SUPPORT BACKED BY SCIENCE: Emerging science shows a link between gut and brain health;...
  • STRESS MANAGEMENT AND PREBIOTICS FOR WOMEN AND MEN: Our prebiotic supplement with Organic Acacia and...
Life Extension Florassist Mood, 30 Capsules
  • Promotes relaxation
  • Improves mood
  • Research has shown connection between “gut-brain axis” and nervous system
Hyperbiotics Pro-15 Advanced Strength Probiotic | Probiotics for Women Men Adults | Digestive Health Immune Support Supplement | Shelf Stable Time Release 15x...
1,812 个好评
Hyperbiotics Pro-15 Advanced Strength Probiotic | Probiotics for Women Men Adults | Digestive Health Immune Support Supplement | Shelf Stable Time Release 15x...
  • GET 15 TIMES MORE SURVIVABILITY THAN WITH VEGGIE CAPSULES. With a patented delivery method, the...
  • SUPPORT YOUR DIGESTION. This triple strength formula provides targeted support for occasional...
  • LIVE MORE HEALTHY DAYS. 80% of your immune system is in your gut. PRO-15 Advanced Strength helps...
降低胆固醇水平的生活习惯与保健品

提高免疫力

益生菌有助于肠道细菌平衡,增加身体抵抗过敏和病毒感染的能力[]另有研究发现,益生菌还能预防牙龈炎和牙龈感染[]。对免疫健康有益处的益生菌补充剂推荐如下。

Culturelle Health & Wellness Daily Probiotic Supplement For Men and Women, Supports Natural Immune Defense, With a Proven Effective Probiotic, 15 Billion...
  • PROVEN EFFECTIVE – Culturelle Pro-Well Health & Welness Daily Probiotic Capsules are powered by...
  • DAILY IMMUNE AND DIGESTIVE HEALTH* – LGG works naturally with your body to help restore the...
  • NO REFRIGERATION REQUIRED –Every package of Culturelle meets the highest standards for purity and...
Dr. David Williams' Probiotic Advantage Supplement with 7 Unique Strains and Patented Technology to Deliver Probiotics Alive (30 Caplets)
  • THE STRAINS YOUR GUT NEEDS FOR EVERYDAY DIGESTIVE SUPPORT. Delivers 2 billion live bacteria in 7...
  • SEVEN HARDY, SPECIALLY-SELECTED BIFIDOBACTERIA AND LACTOBACILLUS STRAINS. Patented BIO-tract...
  • SPECIAL LIVEBAC TECHNOLOGY KEEPS THE BACTERIA ALIVE SO THEY SAFELY GET TO YOUR INTESTINES. LiveBac...
美国药剂师推荐的提高免疫力保健品

除了针对特定病症之外,服用益生菌还能促进整体健康。

美国药剂师推荐的益生菌品牌

益生菌(Probiotic)对消化系统健康有益处。根据 U.S. News 数据,Culturelle 是美国药剂师最认可的品牌。Culturelle(康萃乐)是美国保健品企业 i-Health 公司旗下益生菌补充剂品牌,产品使用鼠李糖乳杆菌(LactobacillusGG 或 LGG),是目前研究和应用都很多的益生菌菌株,已证实 LGG 有平衡和改善胃肠道功能、增强人体自身免疫能力、预防和帮助治疗腹泻的功能。

品牌得票点击购买
Culturelle28%点我
Florastor17%点我
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Phillips’ Colon Health7%点我
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VSL #34%点我
Bacid Probiotic3%点我
Probiotic Pearls1%点我
BioGaia1%点我
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