健康医药

国家卫生研究院:运动补剂成分有效性综述

保健品是否能帮助你更好地完成训练,提升运动表现,获得竞争优势吗?以下编译自国家卫生研究院官网关于运动补剂成分的综述文章。

什么是运动补剂?

运动补剂特指那些以增强运动能力、提升运动表现为目的保健品,也叫增补剂或助能剂 (ergogenic aids),这些产品声称可以提升力量,提高运动效率和在高强度训练中的耐受性,以及促进运动后的身体恢复。

运动补剂有多种形式,包括片剂、胶囊、液体、粉末和能量棒等,比较常见的成分有氨基酸 (amino acids)、蛋白质 (protein)、肌酸 (creatine) 和咖啡因 (caffeine) 。

运动补剂成分及其有效性研究

以下按照英文首字母顺序列出了运动补剂常见成分、有效性研究结果、安全性和服用建议。

需要留意的是,市面上销售的产品大都不是单一成分的。当多种成分混合时,作用可能改变,而大多数成分组合缺乏充分研究。运动补剂产品可能没有经过人体实验,或研究只是基于年轻健康的男性的使用数据,对女性、中老年人或青少年的研究很少。运动补剂研究可能仅仅关注了从事某项特定体育活动的人,因此很难得出普适性的结论。

抗氧化剂 (维生素 C、维生素 E和辅酶 Q10) / Antioxidants

研究结果表明,抗氧化剂不能直接提升运动表现,少有科学证据支持额外服用抗氧化剂保健品能够提高身体机能。

运动时,你会吸入更多氧气,形成自由基,自由基会损伤肌肉细胞。抗氧化剂可以减少自由基对肌肉的损伤,因此有认为,服用抗氧化剂可以减轻肌肉炎症、酸痛和疲劳。然而,这是错误的。

运动时形成的自由基有助于肌肉纤维生长并产生更多的能量。抗氧化剂反而可能减少运动带来的好处,如肌肉生长和能量输出。抗氧化剂对有氧健身和长跑等耐力活动的表现几乎没有影响。

成人维生素 C 摄入量超过 2,000 mg/天可能出现腹泻、恶心、腹部痉挛和其它胃肠道紊乱症状;成人维生素 E 摄入量超过 1,500 IU/天 (天然形式) 或1,100 IU/天 (合成形式) 时,出血性反应的风险增加;辅酶 Q10 可能引起包括疲劳、失眠、头痛和胃肠道不适等轻微副作用。

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精氨酸 / Arginine

目前的研究中所使用的精氨酸含量为 2~20 g,持续时间为 3 个月,研究结果不支持精氨酸在提升运动表现和促进运动后身体恢复方面的功效。

精氨酸是蛋白质食物中含有的一种氨基酸,存在于如肉、家禽、鱼、蛋、乳制品和豆类等食物中。营养膳食每天可供应大约 4~5g 精氨酸。

保健品销售商声称,摄入大量精氨酸可以提高性能,原因是身体会将精氨酸转化为一氧化氮,从而扩张血管,增加血液流量,这有助于向肌肉输送氧气和养分,清除导致肌肉疲劳的废物。尽管研究有限,但精氨酸对增加肌肉以及增强肌肉力量方面几乎没有影响,在从事有氧运动时,精氨酸对血管舒张、血液流动或清除运动代谢物几乎没有影响。

每天摄入 9g 以下精氨酸,连续数天至数周都是安全的,大剂量服用可能产生不良反应,包括腹泻、恶心、血压下降等。

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甜菜根 / Beetroot 或甜菜汁 / Beet juice

尽管尚未得出统一结论,但很多研究都发现,甜菜汁可以提高跑步、游泳、骑自行车和划船等有氧运动的表现和耐力;是否有助于加强肌肉和提升健美运动表现还不清楚。

甜菜和甜菜汁是硝酸盐的最佳食物来源。人体会将部分硝酸盐转化为一氧化氮,从而扩张血管,增加血液流动,增加氧气和营养物质输送到运动肌肉的能力。扩张血管也有助于加速清除导致肌肉疲劳的废物。尚不清楚甜菜根粉制成的保健品是否具有与甜菜汁相同的作用。

比起职业运动员,甜菜汁更适合改善普通人从事日常体育锻炼的运动表现。建议服用方法是在运动前 2.5~3 小时喝 2 杯甜菜汁。

尚未发现不良反应。

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β-丙氨酸 / Beta-alanine

研究表明,β-丙氨酸有助于在游泳、曲棍球、足球等间歇性高强度体育项目中改善运动表现。这是因为我们的身体利用 β-丙氨酸在骨骼肌中制造肌肽 – 当短暂进行剧烈运动时,肌肉会产生乳酸,肌酸会降低肌肉力量,导致疲劳,而肌肽可以减少乳酸积累,使身体从疲劳中恢复。但尚不清楚 β-丙氨酸是否同样有助于像自行车这样的耐力运动。

小剂量 (1.6~6.4g/每日) 服用,连续 8 周是安全的;800mg 及以上,或超过 10mg/每千克体重,会导致明显的感觉异常,如面部、颈部、手背和上躯干有刺痛或烧灼感,这种不适可能持续 60~90 分钟,但不会危害健康。目前还不清楚长期服用是否安全。

国际运动营养学会建议,如果你身体健康,想尝试 β-丙氨酸保健品,可以每日随餐服用 4~6g,连续 2 周,看看这种营养素是否对你有帮助。

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β-羟基-β-甲基丁酸酯 / HMB

HMB (Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate) 可以让人从长时间高强度的运动中快速恢复,减少肌肉损伤。HMB 在人体的肝脏中被转化成一种化合物,有认为,这种化合物能够帮助紧张和受损的骨骼肌细胞恢复其结构和功能。目前尚不清楚服用 HMB 是否能够提高运动成绩。

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甜菜碱 / Betaine

甜菜碱可能会增加肌酸以及血液中硝酸的水平。基于有限的男性临床试验数据,甜菜碱有助于提升健美运动员和自行车运动员的肌肉力量和运动表现。

甜菜碱也存在于食物中,如甜菜、菠菜和全麦面包等,日常膳食会供应约 100~300mg 甜菜碱。

每天服用 2~5g 甜菜碱,连续 15 天,没有发现不良反应。职业运动员服用甜菜碱没有发现副作用。

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支链氨基酸 / BCAAs

BCAAs 有助于增加肌肉和加强力量,但似乎无法改善与耐力有关的有氧运动的表现。目前尚不清楚服用 BCAAs 是否比高质量蛋白质食物对肌肉形成更有作用。

亮氨酸 (amino acids leucine)、异亮氨酸 (isoleucine) 和缬氨酸 (valine) 统称为 BCAAs (Branched-chain amino acids),存在于肉、鱼和牛奶等动物性食品中。BCAAs 中亮氨酸也可能有助于增强肌肉。

高质量蛋白质食物可供应 10~20g 的 BCAAs。每天补充 20g BCAAs,长达 6 周,没有不良反应报告。

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咖啡因 / Caffeine

适量咖啡因可以帮助人们在高强度水平下维持更长的锻炼时间,提高耐力,减少疼痛感和疲劳。咖啡因有助于提高耐力项目和间歇性高强度项目的运动表现,如长跑、足球和网球等,但对短跑或举重等短时间高强度运动没有帮助。咖啡因对个人的影响有差异,并不一定能够提高运动成绩。

一杯咖啡含有约 85~100mg 咖啡因。成年人每天摄入 400~500mg 咖啡因通常是安全的,而青少年应限制每日摄入量少于 100mg。摄入更多咖啡因会增加副作用风险,如失眠、易怒、焦虑、恶心、呕吐、心动过速和心律失常等。单次摄入 10,000mg 及以上可致命。

运动医学专家建议,可以在运动前 15~60 分钟摄入咖啡因 2~6mg/每千克体重。国家大学生体育协会和国际奥委会对运动员在比赛前的咖啡因摄入量有限制。

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瓜氨酸 / Citrulline

瓜氨酸作为运动补剂的研究很有限。瓜氨酸是人体产生的一种氨基酸,也存在于食物中。人体肾脏将大部分瓜氨酸转化成了精氨酸。瓜氨酸可以扩张血管,增加氧气和营养物质向骨骼肌的输送,但试验结果尚未达成统一。

不良反应包括胃肠不适。

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L Citrulline Capsules 1,200mg Per Serving, 210 Count (L-Citrulline Increases Levels of L-Arginine and Nitric Oxide) Muscle Recovery Supplement – Improve Muscle Pump by Double Wood Supplements
1,377 个好评
L Citrulline Capsules 1,200mg Per Serving, 210 Count (L-Citrulline Increases Levels of L-Arginine and Nitric Oxide) Muscle Recovery Supplement – Improve Muscle Pump by Double Wood Supplements
  • Made and Tested in the USA; Our L Citrulline capsules are made in the USA and safety tested for...
  • Boost L Arginine Levels; Research shows that L Citrulline may be more effective at increasing levels...
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肌酸 / Creatine

运动医学专家认为,补充肌酸可以提高运动表现,并促进身体在高强度训练后的快速恢复。

肌酸是一种化合物,储存在人体的肌肉中,为肌肉提供短期、主要是无氧活动的能量。肌酸可以在短时间内反复进行的高强度间歇性体育项目中提高运动表现,如短跑和举重等,但对耐力运动,如长跑、自行车或游泳等几乎没有作用。肌酸的运动改善作用因人而异。

肌酸存在于动物性食物中,如牛肉和鲑鱼等。但日常膳食无法满足用于改善运动表现时所需的肌酸,需要额外从补充剂中大量摄取。一水肌酸 (creatine monohydrate) 是最广泛使用的肌酸补充剂形式。

对于健康成年人来说,长期服用是安全的,有个别报告称服用肌酸后会引起恶心、腹泻、肌肉痉挛、肌肉僵硬、不耐热等,但很罕见。肌酸通常还会导致体重增加,这是因为肌酸会增加身体对水分的保留。

有折扣# 1
Optimum Nutrition Micronized Creatine Monohydrate Powder, Unflavored, Keto Friendly, 240 Servings (Packaging May Vary)
4,019 个好评
Optimum Nutrition Micronized Creatine Monohydrate Powder, Unflavored, Keto Friendly, 240 Servings (Packaging May Vary)
  • 5G PURE CREATINE MONOHYDRATE PER SERVING
  • SUPPORTS INCREASES IN ENERGY, ENDURANCE & RECOVERY. May contain allergens like milk, soy, gluten,...
  • MAXIMUM POTENCY – supports muscle size, strength, and power
# 2
BulkSupplements.com Creatine Monohydrate (Micronized) - Creatine Powder - Muscle Building Supplements (500 Grams)
22,820 个好评
BulkSupplements.com Creatine Monohydrate (Micronized) - Creatine Powder - Muscle Building Supplements (500 Grams)
  • Increased Muscle Mass - Creatine is one of the most widely-used bodybuilding supplements....
  • Promote weight gain - Has been taken by gym-goers for years as a preworkout or postworkout to...
  • Boost anaerobic strength - Often taken as a preworkout to help boost anaerobic strength, possibly...
有折扣# 3
Optimum Nutrition Micronized Creatine Monohydrate Powder, Unflavored, Keto Friendly, 120 Servings (Packaging May Vary)
20,460 个好评
Optimum Nutrition Micronized Creatine Monohydrate Powder, Unflavored, Keto Friendly, 120 Servings (Packaging May Vary)
  • 5 grams pure creatine monohydrate per serving
  • Supports increases in energy, endurance & recovery
  • Maximum potency supports muscle size, strength, and power

鹿茸 / Deer antler velvet

鹿茸是雄鹿未骨化时候还带着茸毛的幼角制成的,鹿茸中可能含有促进肌肉生长的生长因子。目前还没有证据表明鹿茸可以提高肌肉力量或增强运动耐力,少量已发表的研究也没能证实鹿茸保健品在改善运动表现方面的益处。对鹿茸的安全性研究也不充分。

不良反应包括低血糖、头痛、水肿和关节痛。职业比赛禁止选手服用鹿茸。

脱氢表雄酮 / DHEA

DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) 是肾上腺分泌的一种类固醇激素。人体会将一些脱氢表雄酮转化为睾丸激素,这是一种雄性激素,能够增强肌肉的大小和力量。但没有科学证据支持服用 DHEA 来改善运动表现。为数不多的已发表的研究均以男性使用数据为基础,没有发现任何益处,如肌肉大小、肌肉力量和携氧能力均没有明显改善,睾酮水平也没有上升。

DHEA 安全性也缺乏科学依据。在两项针对男性的小型研究中,每天服用 150mg,连续 6~12 周,没有发现安全问题。副作用包括女性体内的睾酮水平升高,导致痤疮和面部毛发生长。

全国大学生体育协会和世界反兴奋剂机构禁止体育比赛选手服用 DHEA。

有折扣# 1
DHEA 100mg | 200 Capsules | Non-GMO, Gluten Free Supplement | by Horbaach
3,395 个好评
DHEA 100mg | 200 Capsules | Non-GMO, Gluten Free Supplement | by Horbaach
  • HEALTHY AGING: Promotes natural, healthy levels of DHEA that can decline in men and women over 30*
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# 2
Pure Encapsulations DHEA 25 mg | Supplement for Immune Support, Fat Burning, Hormone Balance, and Emotional Wellness* | 180 Capsules
1,484 个好评
Pure Encapsulations DHEA 25 mg | Supplement for Immune Support, Fat Burning, Hormone Balance, and Emotional Wellness* | 180 Capsules
  • Increased Absorption: Pure Encapsulations DHEA is micronized to help increased absorption in the...
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# 3
Puritans Pride Dhea 50 Mg Tablets, 50 Mg (100 Tabs), 100 Count (Pack of 1)
4,513 个好评
Puritans Pride Dhea 50 Mg Tablets, 50 Mg (100 Tabs), 100 Count (Pack of 1)
  • Highest quality vitamins and supplements since 1973
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  • May promote sugar metabolism

人参 / Ginseng

人参在中药领域被当作强身健体的补品。有认为,人参可以提高耐力,增强活力,常被用来对抗疲劳和增强免疫系统,但尚没有充分证据表明人参具备改善运动能力和提高运动表现的功用。

人参的不良反应包括头痛、睡眠障碍和胃肠道反应等。

谷氨酰胺 / Glutamine

少有科学证据支持服用谷氨酰胺来改善运动表现。谷氨酰胺可能有助于肌肉力量的恢复,以及减轻运动后的肌肉酸痛;在对成人举重运动员的研究中,谷氨酰胺对肌肉性能或肌肉蛋白质降解方面缺少有益影响。

人体产生的谷氨酰胺主要来自支链氨基酸。蛋白质食物可供应大约 3~6g 的谷氨酰胺。

成人连续几周,每天服用高达 45g 的谷氨酰胺,没有相关的安全问题报告。

有折扣# 1
Now Foods Supplements, L-Glutamine 500 mg, Nitrogen Transporter, Amino Acid, 120 Veg Capsules, White
4,881 个好评
Now Foods Supplements, L-Glutamine 500 mg, Nitrogen Transporter, Amino Acid, 120 Veg Capsules, White
  • Amino acid/supports immune function: Glutamine is considered to be a conditionally essential amino...
  • Nitrogen transporter: In the body, glutamine functions as a major nitrogen transporter and is...
  • Classifications/certifications: Halal, non-gmo, kosher, dairy free, egg free, made without gluten,...
# 2
Optimum Nutrition L-Glutamine Muscle Recovery Capsules, 1000mg, 240 Count (Package May Vary)
6,639 个好评
Optimum Nutrition L-Glutamine Muscle Recovery Capsules, 1000mg, 240 Count (Package May Vary)
  • 1000 milligram of pure l glutamine per 2 capsules
  • Most abundant amino acid in the body
  • Plays an important role in muscle protein development
有折扣# 3
Body Fortress 100% Pure Glutamine Powder, Supports Post Workout Recovery, 10.6 oz
3,762 个好评
Body Fortress 100% Pure Glutamine Powder, Supports Post Workout Recovery, 10.6 oz
  • It is a highly effective recovery fuel
  • Contains 4.5 grams of Pure Glutamine in each serving
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铁 / Iron

铁能将氧气输送到肌肉和组织中,细胞也需要铁来将食物转化称能量。缺铁或缺铁性贫血会导致疲倦,限制运动能力和积极性,所以对于缺铁性贫血的人来说,补充铁可能提高在力量和耐力体育项目中的表现。但如果你从饮食中已经摄取了足够的铁,再额外摄入铁是没有帮助的。此外,轻度缺铁 (无贫血) 是否会损害运动表现的证据不一致。

对青少年和成年人来说,从补充剂中摄入少于 45mg 的铁是安全的,铁的建议摄入量请查看《NIH:铁的功效和副作用》。运动员和素食主义者的摄入量要更高些。对健康人来说,铁摄入量过高会引起胃部不适、便秘、恶心、腹痛、呕吐和晕厥等。

如果想要提高运动成绩,含铁的保健品并非首选,你更应该吃含铁丰富的食物,如瘦肉、海鲜、家禽、豆类、坚果和葡萄干等。

# 1
Nature's Bounty Iron 65 Mg.(325 mg Ferrous Sulfate), 100 Tablets
8,529 个好评
Nature's Bounty Iron 65 Mg.(325 mg Ferrous Sulfate), 100 Tablets
  • Iron is a necessary component of hemoglobin, the oxygen carrier in the blood*
  • Iron supports energy utilization and normal red blood cell production*
  • This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease
# 2
MegaFood, Blood Builder, Iron Supplement, Support Energy and Combat Fatigue without Nausea or Constipation, Non-GMO, Vegan, 60 Tablets
5,979 个好评
MegaFood, Blood Builder, Iron Supplement, Support Energy and Combat Fatigue without Nausea or Constipation, Non-GMO, Vegan, 60 Tablets
  • Increase Iron Levels Without The Nausea: Clinically shown to combat fatigue and improve energy...
  • Nourish Your Body: Delivers 26 mg of Iron; Includes folic acid and B12 for healthy red blood cell...
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# 3
Vitron-C High Potency Iron Supplement with Vitamin C, Boosts Energy, 60 Count
11,428 个好评
Vitron-C High Potency Iron Supplement with Vitamin C, Boosts Energy, 60 Count
  • Easy on the stomach
  • Less constipation
  • 65 mg elemental iron

蛋白质 / Protein

蛋白质帮助身体建立、维持和修复肌肉。有大量临床试验证明,蛋白质能改善身体对运动训练的反应,并缩短运动后身体恢复所需要的时间。

蛋白质是由氨基酸组成,一些氨基酸可以由人体合成,另必需氨基酸 (essential amino acids,EAAs) 则需要从食物中获取。动物性食品 (如肉、禽、鱼、蛋和奶制品) 以及植物性食物 (如谷物和豆类) 都含有不同的 EAAs。蛋白粉和饮料都含有的乳清是牛奶中的一种蛋白质,能够提供所有类型的 EAAs。

没有已知的不良反应。。

# 1
Body Fortress Super Advanced Whey Protein Powder(Gluten Free/Packaging May Vary), Chocolate, 5 Pound (Pack of 1), 80 Oz
38,337 个好评
Body Fortress Super Advanced Whey Protein Powder(Gluten Free/Packaging May Vary), Chocolate, 5 Pound (Pack of 1), 80 Oz
  • You will receive (1) jar of Body Fortress Super Advanced Whey Protein Powder, Chocolate, 5 pounds
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有折扣# 2
Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard 100% Whey Protein Powder, Extreme Milk Chocolate, 2 Pound (Packaging May Vary)
41,425 个好评
Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard 100% Whey Protein Powder, Extreme Milk Chocolate, 2 Pound (Packaging May Vary)
  • Packaging may vary new look, with the same trusted quality
  • Gold standard 100 % whey blend – 24g blended protein consisting of whey protein isolate, whey...
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有折扣# 3
Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard 100% Whey Protein Powder, Double Rich Chocolate, 5 Pound (Packaging May Vary)
30,494 个好评
Optimum Nutrition Gold Standard 100% Whey Protein Powder, Double Rich Chocolate, 5 Pound (Packaging May Vary)
  • Packaging may vary - New look, with the same trusted quality
  • Gold standard 100% whey blend – 24 grams blended protein consisting of whey protein isolate, whey...
  • Over 5 grams of BCAAS ‚Äì help build lean and strong muscles with BCAAs

槲皮素 / Quercetin

有专家认为,补充槲皮素可以为肌肉增加能量,改善血液循环。但很少有科学证据支持服用槲皮素来用于改善运动表现。基于有限研究,槲皮素对运动能力的改善作用很微小。

槲皮素是水果、蔬菜和茶叶中含有的一种化合物。日常膳食可供应约 13mg 槲皮素。

在对服用槲皮素的运动员的研究中,每天摄入约 1,000mg 槲皮素,连续 8 周,没有不良反应报告。

# 1
Amazing Formulas - Quercetin 500 Mg, 120 VCaps(Vegetarian Capsules) (Non-GMO,Gluten Free, Vegan) * Supports Cardiovascular Health, Helps Improve Anti-Inflammatory & Immune Response,
12,987 个好评
Amazing Formulas - Quercetin 500 Mg, 120 VCaps(Vegetarian Capsules) (Non-GMO,Gluten Free, Vegan) * Supports Cardiovascular Health, Helps Improve Anti-Inflammatory & Immune Response,
  • Quercetin is a flavonoid (plant pigment) naturally found in fruits and vegetables. It is found in...
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# 2
NOW Foods Supplements, Quercetin with Bromelain, Balanced Immune System, 240 Veg Capsules
4,516 个好评
NOW Foods Supplements, Quercetin with Bromelain, Balanced Immune System, 240 Veg Capsules
  • BALANCED IMMUNE SYSTEM: Quercetin is a naturally occurring free radical scavenger that supports...
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  • CLASSIFICATIONS/CERTIFICATIONS: Kosher, Non-GMO, Soy free, vegan/vegetarian, nut free, made without...
有折扣# 3
NOW Supplements Quercetin with Bromelain Balanced Immune System, Pineapple, 120 Veg Capsules
2,792 个好评
NOW Supplements Quercetin with Bromelain Balanced Immune System, Pineapple, 120 Veg Capsules
  • With Bromelain - Supports immune function
  • Supports healthy histamine levels
  • Helps manage seasonal discomfort

核糖 / Ribose

核糖是人体产生的一种天然糖,有助于肌肉能量的产生。有专家认为,补充核糖有助于肌肉产生更多能量,但很少有科学证据支持服用核糖来改善运动表现。

对运动员服用核糖的研究没有不良反应报告。对服用核糖的安全性缺少充分研究。

# 1
Jarrow Formulas Ribose, Supports: Muscle Recovery, Energy & Endurance, 90 Tablets
881 个好评
Jarrow Formulas Ribose, Supports: Muscle Recovery, Energy & Endurance, 90 Tablets
  • Supports: Muscle Recovery,* Energy & Endurance*
  • Chewable D-Ribose Tablets: Berry Flavored
  • 100 % Bioenergy Ribose
# 2
Doctor's Best D-Ribose with Bioenergy Ribose, Vegan, Energy Enhancement, 120 Veggie Caps, White (DRB-00193)
277 个好评
Doctor's Best D-Ribose with Bioenergy Ribose, Vegan, Energy Enhancement, 120 Veggie Caps, White (DRB-00193)
  • Best D-Ribose featuring BioEnergy Ribose supports energy production in the heart and muscles and...
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  • D-ribose forms the structural core of ATP; ATP is the energy source for our muscles during physical...
# 3
Nutricost D-Ribose Powder 500 Grams - (5000mg Per Serving)
863 个好评
Nutricost D-Ribose Powder 500 Grams - (5000mg Per Serving)
  • 5 Grams of D-Ribose Per Serving (100 Servings)
  • Serving Scoop Included
  • 500 Grams of D-Ribose Per Bottle

碳酸氢钠 / Sodium bicarbonate

剧烈运动会导致肌肉产生酸,降低肌肉力量,引起疲劳。碳酸氢钠可以减少酸的积累,尤其是对训练有素的运动员有益处。研究表明,对于需要从事短时间高强度的运动 (如短跑、游泳) 或间歇性高强度运动 (如网球、拳击) 的运动员,服用碳酸氢钠可能会提高运动表面。但不同人对碳酸氢钠的反应有差异,对有些人来说,碳酸氢钠反而可能降低竞技表现。

短期服用高达 300mg/公斤体重,没有安全问题的报告。但碳酸氢钠的钠含量很高,每茶匙约 1,260mg,所以碳酸氢钠溶解非常咸,可能难以下咽。

碳酸氢钠可引起胃肠道不适,如恶心和呕吐等,以及因水分潴留而导致的体重增加。

# 1
Sodium Bicarbonate Tablets USP 650 mg (10 Grains) for Relief of Acid Indigestion, Heartburn, Sour Stomach & Upset Stomach 1000 Tablets per Bottle by CitraGen Pharmaceuticals Inc
1,506 个好评
Sodium Bicarbonate Tablets USP 650 mg (10 Grains) for Relief of Acid Indigestion, Heartburn, Sour Stomach & Upset Stomach 1000 Tablets per Bottle by CitraGen Pharmaceuticals Inc
  • Sodium Bicarbonate Tablets USP 650 mg (10 grains) as an Antacid, provides symptomatic relief from...
  • Sodium Bicarbonate Tablets USP 650 mg (10 grains) Antacid, relieves acid indigestion, heartburn,...
  • Ask a doctor before use if you have a sodium restricted diet.
# 2
Rugby Sodium Bicarbonate 10 grains tablets relieve heartburn, antacid - 1000 ea
542 个好评
# 3
Pure Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda) (5 lb.), Eco-Friendly Packaging, Highest Purity, Pharmaceutical Grade
753 个好评
Pure Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda) (5 lb.), Eco-Friendly Packaging, Highest Purity, Pharmaceutical Grade
  • FOOD AND USP GRADE, HIGHEST QUALITY PRODUCT, ECO-FRIENDLY PACKAGING.
  • COOKING, BAKING, AND CLEANING.
  • INDIGESTION OR HEARTBURN.

酸樱桃 / Tart (Sour cherry)

基于有限的科学证据,酸樱桃补充剂可以帮助健美运动员更快地恢复体力,并在运动后减少肌肉酸痛;还可以帮助跑步者跑得更快,并且避免可能发生的肺损伤,在马拉松比赛后减少感冒或呼吸系统疾病风险。

典型的剂量是运动前 1 周及运动后 2 天,每天喝 2 杯酸樱桃果汁或 500mg 酸樱桃果皮粉。

对运动员服用酸樱桃产品的研究尚没有发现副作用。

# 1
Tart Cherry Capsules | 7000 mg | 200 Pills | Max Potency | Non-GMO, Gluten Free | Tart Cherry Juice Extract | by Carlyle
1,975 个好评
Tart Cherry Capsules | 7000 mg | 200 Pills | Max Potency | Non-GMO, Gluten Free | Tart Cherry Juice Extract | by Carlyle
  • SUCCULENT FRUIT: Get all the amazing benefits of Tart Cherry without the excess sugar from juice!
  • MAXIMUM ABSORPTION: Two Quick-Release capsules deliver the equivilent of 7,000 MG per serving
  • SWEET ANTIOXIDANTS: Naturally rich in antioxidants that help fight free radicals and support joints*
有折扣# 2
Tart Cherry Extract Capsules | 200 Count | 2400 mg | Non-GMO and Gluten Free Supplement | by Carlyle
  • Harvested in Indian summer before the ground is frozen and packed with flavonoids and hesperidin
  • The sour Tart Cherry is often a treatment in teas, ginger, syrups and other liquids versus tablets
  • This little vitamin pill is packed with antioxidants
# 3
Tart Cherry Concentrate - Made from Montmorency Tart Cherries; Non-GMO & Gluten Free (60 Liquid Softgels)
7,255 个好评
Tart Cherry Concentrate - Made from Montmorency Tart Cherries; Non-GMO & Gluten Free (60 Liquid Softgels)
  • Made from Organic Montmorency Tart Cherries containing Phytonutrients and Anthocyanins.*
  • Provides some of the same benefits as Tart Cherry juice without the Sugar, Carbohydrates or Calories
  • SR Vitamins & Supplements are manufactured and packaged in the USA following to the strictest cGMP...

蒺藜 / Tribulus terrestris

有声称,蒺藜 (读作 jí lí) 能够增加血清睾酮和黄体生成素浓度,促进骨骼肌增大。但关于使用蒺藜来增加肌肉力量的研究还很有限,一些小型的短期临床试验并未发现蒺藜对力量、体重或性激素水平有任何影响。

还没有足够的研究以知道明确蒺藜的安全性。但动物研究表明,服用高剂量蒺藜可能导致心脏、肝脏和肾脏损伤。

运动医学专家建议不要服用任何声称能提高睾丸激素的膳食补充剂。

# 1
Tribulus Terrestris, 8650mg Per Capsule, Highest Potency with Ashwagndha, Panax Ginseng, Saw Palmetto, Maca, Shilajit. Boost Energy, Mood, Stamina & Performance, for Men & Women, 3 Months Supply.
422 个好评
Tribulus Terrestris, 8650mg Per Capsule, Highest Potency with Ashwagndha, Panax Ginseng, Saw Palmetto, Maca, Shilajit. Boost Energy, Mood, Stamina & Performance, for Men & Women, 3 Months Supply.
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# 2
Ultra High Strength Tribulus Capsules - 95% Steroidal Saponins - 1300mg Concentrated Extract Formula - The Strongest Testosterone Booster Available - 120 Caps
6,239 个好评
Ultra High Strength Tribulus Capsules - 95% Steroidal Saponins - 1300mg Concentrated Extract Formula - The Strongest Testosterone Booster Available - 120 Caps
  • The Most Active Tribulus Available - Toniiq Tribulus is a super-concentrated extract, bringing the...
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# 3
Tribulus Terrestris 1500mg Extract Powder - Testosterone Booster with Estrogen Blocker - Arazo Nutrition - 180 Capsules
13,771 个好评
Tribulus Terrestris 1500mg Extract Powder - Testosterone Booster with Estrogen Blocker - Arazo Nutrition - 180 Capsules
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运动补剂如何监管?

美国 FDA 对运动补剂的监管与其它膳食补充剂一样,运动补剂在销售前不需要进行测试或获得批准,制造商有责任确保他们的产品是安全的,产品标签上的声明是真实的,不存在误导。当 FDA 发现一种不安全的运动补剂时,FDA 可以将产品从市场上撤下,或要求制造商召回该产品。运动补剂和其它膳食补充剂的制造商不得在产品中添加药物或其它掺假物质,也不可以声称其产品可以治疗、治愈或预防某种疾病。

运动补剂有害吗?

像所有的膳食补充剂一样,运动补剂也有副作用,也可能与处方药和非处方药产生药物冲突。例如,人参会降低华法林 (warfarin;药品名:Coumadin) 的血液稀释作用;西咪替丁 (cimetidine;药品名:Tagamet HB,十二指肠溃疡治疗用药) 会减缓人体排出咖啡因,增加咖啡因摄入的副作用风险。就医时应主动向医生说明服用运动补剂或其它膳食补充剂的类别和情况。

此外,一些运动补剂中可能含有不适当的、未明确标注或非法的兴奋剂、类固醇、激素类成分、管制物质、处方药或未经批准的药物。这些产品可能会导致健康问题,职业运动员可能因此被取消参赛资格。FDA 命令禁止的违禁成分包括:

  • 雄烯二酮 (androstenedione)
  • 二甲基淀粉胺(dimethylamylamine, DMAA)
  • 麻黄 (ephedra)

合理方法提升运动表现

目前来说,只有少数运动补剂获得了充分的科学依据,证明其具有改善运动表现的功效。

不论是业余或是职业运动员,吃营养充足的食物,饮用足够的液体,保持身体健康,接受适当训练,就可以提升运动表现,并可以很快从运动后疲劳中恢复过来。如果想要尝试运动补剂,建议先咨询医疗保健提供者或运动医学专家。

通常来说,只有成年人可以服用运动补剂。根据美国儿科学会 (American Academy of Pediatrics),青少年运动员不应服用任何形式的运动补剂,也没有研究表明哪种运动补剂能够安全有效地提升青少年的运动能力和运动表现。

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